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ItemAre we fracked? The impact of falling gas prices and the implications for coal-to-gas switching and carbon emissions(Oxford University Press, 2016) Knittel, Christopher R.; Metaxoglou, Konstantinos; Trindade, André Garcia de OliveiraWe discuss the environmental implications of the dramatic drop in the price of natural gas following the US shale gas boom due to the rise of modern hydraulic fracturing. In the first part of the paper, we argue that the ensuing drop in the price of natural gas has an ambiguous effect on global carbon emissions because of three countervailing effects: coal-to-gas switching in the US electric power sector, an increase in the relative cost of US renewable energy sources, and an increase in US coal exports. Our position is that without a meaningful cap, the shale gas boom is likely to increase global emissions and the period during which natural gas is used as a bridge fuel to clean energy should be limited. In the second part of the paper, we review recent environmental policies for the US electric power sector that have contributed to reducing carbon emissions, and discuss the complex economics of the newly introduced Clean Power Plan. Although the availability of cheap natural gas has been factored in US environmental policy and has helped electricity generators to achieve compliance with various rules and regulations, it should not derail policy from its long-run objective, which is the transition to a less fossil-fuel dependent economy. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. ItemEnvironmental policy and growth when inputs are differentiated in pollution intensity(Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2004-12-06) Ricci, FrancescoEnvironmental policy affects the distribution of market shares if intermediate goods are differentiated in their pollution intensity. When innovations are environment-friendly, a tax on emissions skews demand towards new goods which are the most productive. In this case, the tax has to increase along a balanced growth path to keep the market shares of goods of different vintages constant. Comparing balanced growth paths, we find that an increase in the burden of environmental taxation spurs innovation because it increases the market share of recent vintages. As a result the cost of environmental policy in terms of slower growth is weaker and may even be absent. ItemForest governance without transparency? Evaluating state efforts to reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon(John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017) Borges, Eduardo Bizzo de Pinho; Michener, Robert GregoryOver 60% of the Amazon basin is contained within nine federal Brazilian states. How transparent are state-level governments about implementing and enforcing deforestation reduction policies? Advocates and officials can only influence forest conservation outcomes to the extent that they have information about the actions – the inputs and outputs – of front-line local actors. Leveraging a recently adopted freedom of information (FOI) law, this paper evaluates how well governments comply with website-based disclosure requirements (active transparency), and how effectively they respond to FOI requests (passive transparency) on the implementation and enforcement of deforestation reduction policies. By focusing on how subnational administrations disclose accountings of forest governance – the inputs and outputs of governance – the current study complements an already extensive body of scholarship on central government monitoring of forest cover – the transparency of outcomes. Comparing our results with an original database of transparency evaluations from Brazil, we find extremely low levels of compliance with FOI obligations. We do find, however, that government agencies possessing electronic FOI platforms, which help applicants send requests and appeals and accompany responses, fare better than those without. This and other findings have implications for the design of transparency systems, while global results speak to the policy challenges of federalism, especially dilemmas of subnational policy enforcement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment ItemGovernance and networks for health co-benefits of climate change mitigation: Lessons from two Indian cities(Elsevier Ltd, 2016) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N. H.Health has been the main driver for many urban environmental interventions, particularly in cases of significant health problems linked to poor urban environmental conditions. This paper examines empirically the links between climate change mitigation and health in urban areas, when health is the main driver for improvements. The paper aims to understand how systems of urban governance can enable or prevent the creation of health outcomes via continuous improvements in the environmental conditions in a city. The research draws on cases from two Indian cities where initiatives were undertaken in different sectors: Surat (waste) and Delhi (transportation). Using the literature on network effectiveness as an analytical framework, the paper compares the cases to identify the possible ways to strengthen the governance and policy making process in the urban system so that each intervention can intentionally realize multiple impacts for both local health and climate change mitigation in the long term as well as factors that may pose a threat to long-term progress and revert back to the previous situation after initial achievements. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd ItemGreen finance and Brazil’s energy transition: challenges and implications: a case study(2023-11-24) Ferrand, ValentineThis thesis explores the implications of green finance on Brazil's ongoing energy transition. As the world grapples with the challenges of climate change and sustainable development, Brazil's shift to cleaner energy sources takes center stage. The study delves into the role of green finance mechanisms, such as green bonds, green investment funds, and blended finance structures, in facilitating this transition. By analyzing the evolution of green finance within Brazil’s energy sector, this thesis sheds light on the potential synergies, challenges, and opportunities that arise when financial innovation intersects with environmental sustainability. It offers an examination of Brazil's position as an emerging market with abundant natural resources and emphasizes the importance of aligning financial strategies with the imperative of clean energy development. The research’s findings aim to contribute to discussions on green finance and provide guidance for policymakers, investors, and stakeholders in Brazil's energy sector as they navigate toward a greener and more resilient energy future. ItemImplementing environmental policies in developing countries through decentralization: the case of protected areas in Bahia, Brazil(Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2002-10) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim deGovernments have two apparently conflicting roles to play: promoter of economic development and protector of environmental quality. Economic development interests tend to have priority on the agenda of most developing country governments, creating obstacles to the implementation of environmental protection policies. This trend can be reversed by introducing environmental protection concerns into the mainstream development agenda by decentralizing environmental policy implementation to development-oriented agencies. In the case of the government of the Brazilian State of Bahia, the decentralized creation and administration of protected areas among several agencies at the state level primarily accounted for the ability of the state to establish a large number of protected areas. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. ItemThe importance of information and participation principles in environmental law in Brazil, the United States and beyond(2013) Cassuto, David Nathan; Sampaio, Rômulo Silveira da RochaThis article explores the two different kinds of uncertainty, 'hard' uncertainty (unknown unknowns) and 'soft' uncertainty (known unknowns), in the context of environmental law decision making. First, it is argued that these different categories should not be treated the same when facing decisions under uncertainty. To deal with these different uncertainties, a tiered risk analysis process is called for, wherein participatory techniques are used both to turn hard uncertainty into (more manageable) soft uncertainty as well as to increase the legitimacy of environmental decision making, even in cases of hard uncertainty. This methodology can and should apply to all instances of domestic, transnational and international environmental law making. This article applies this conceptual platform to analyze how participatory techniques can be factored in to manage uncertainty by reference to two domestic systems - American and Brazilian environmental law - as well as to international (environmental) law. The article concludes that managing uncertainty in the environmental decision-making process is a procedural justice tool to promote more balanced and equitable outcomes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ItemInstrumentos de políticas ambientais, casos de aplicação e seus impactos(2005-11-24) Varela, Carmen AugustaThe study does a theoretical discussion about traditional environmental policy instruments, like regulations and economic incentives. Afterwards, it reports new developments to treat the complexity of many of the most urgent pressures on the environment: the use of appropriated policy packages and negotiated agreements. The work analyses some application cases of the environmental policy instruments, taking into account your impacts. ItemParticipação popular ou participação tutelada? Análise do desenvolvimento da Agenda 21 local em Barueri(2012-02-23) Bento, Fabiana da SilvaThis thesis discusses the popular engagement issue in public policies and it is supported by the analysis of the local Agenda 21 in Barueri. It is based on the theoretical review about this participation, since the existence of the subject among social movements in Europe until it has been discussed in Brazil. From this review it is possible to broach theoretical aspects of the political bargaining with a view to offset the existing and legitimated political practices towards the dilemma originated from the implementation of participatory actions. The study has been conducted under the perspective of field-subject and it has been supported by readings. It has been observed the difficulty in promoting changes into the way policies have been addressed in Barueri, which demonstrates the government’s inability to mobilize the population and emphasizes how important and reliable participative practices are. This work intends to point out the failures and dilemmas found in this process and it suggests ways to evaluate and discuss the implementation of popular participation as a new political practice. ItemQuanto o Brasil precisa investir para recuperar 12 milhões de hectares de florestas?: sumário executivo(Centro de Estudos em Sustentabilidade (FGVces), 2016-05) Kishinami, Roberto; Watanabe Junior, ShigueoO objetivo deste estudo foi calcular os investimentos necessários e receitas decorrentes da recuperação florestal de 12 milhões de hectares até 2030, conforme compromisso assumido pelo Brasil em sua meta de redução de emissões assumida na reunião da Convenção do Clima de Paris (COP-21), em dezembro de 2015.