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ItemBrazilian oil sector reforms: The role of technical know-how and corporate ethos in Petrobras's dominance(Elsevier Ltd, 2018) Trojbicz, Beni; Loureiro, Maria Rita GarciaThe literature shows that Petrobras's specialized knowledge in deep-water exploration helped it maintain its dominance of the oil sector in Brazil. This article contributes to the literature by throwing light on how this process operates: as technicians of the State enterprise monopolize the knowledge, they are called on to participate in key policy decisions for the sector, and thus exert an influence that is not counter-balanced by other experts. Also, as these technicians’ ethos identifies Petrobras's policy agenda with national interests, their participation in oil policymaking reinforces the enterprise's dominance in the sector. This case study contributes to energy policy studies by bringing to the discussion questions addressed here on the institutionalist approach, relating particularly to bureaucratic agents’ behavior and their influence as technical specialists on processes of change. It also addresses the problem of unexpected results of institutional reforms, in view of the challenges faced by governments that seek to alter regulatory frameworks. In other words, the study of a specific case of a government agency through institutional theory seeks to answer exhortations from scholars that indicate the necessity of applying institutionalist approach in the analysis of governance structures. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd ItemForest governance without transparency? Evaluating state efforts to reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon(John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017) Borges, Eduardo Bizzo de Pinho; Michener, Robert GregoryOver 60% of the Amazon basin is contained within nine federal Brazilian states. How transparent are state-level governments about implementing and enforcing deforestation reduction policies? Advocates and officials can only influence forest conservation outcomes to the extent that they have information about the actions – the inputs and outputs – of front-line local actors. Leveraging a recently adopted freedom of information (FOI) law, this paper evaluates how well governments comply with website-based disclosure requirements (active transparency), and how effectively they respond to FOI requests (passive transparency) on the implementation and enforcement of deforestation reduction policies. By focusing on how subnational administrations disclose accountings of forest governance – the inputs and outputs of governance – the current study complements an already extensive body of scholarship on central government monitoring of forest cover – the transparency of outcomes. Comparing our results with an original database of transparency evaluations from Brazil, we find extremely low levels of compliance with FOI obligations. We do find, however, that government agencies possessing electronic FOI platforms, which help applicants send requests and appeals and accompany responses, fare better than those without. This and other findings have implications for the design of transparency systems, while global results speak to the policy challenges of federalism, especially dilemmas of subnational policy enforcement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment ItemGovernança local no sistema descentralizado de Saúde no Brasil(2010) Teixeira, Sônia Maria Fleury; Ouverney, Assis Luiz Mafort; Kronemberger, Thais Soares; Zani, Felipe BarbosaObjective: To analyze the changes in local health care governance resulting from the decentralization process associated with the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil between 1996 and 2006. Methods: A questionnaire was answered in 1996 and again in 2006 by all city officials involved in health care management in Brazil. Information was collected on the innovative characteristics of administrative practices in terms of three dimensions: social, management, and care. The present article analyzes the results relating to the social dimension (relationship between municipal officials and the various community actors) according to four attributes: preparing the budget (degree of influence of various actors), establishing priorities, accountability, and flow of information to the community. Results: The influence of municipal secretaries of health and health councils on budget preparation has increased, with a decrease of local politician influence. In prioritizing health issues, local politicians and spontaneous demands have also become less influential, with strengthening of the influence of technical opinions and proposals by health councils and conferences. Public disclosure of results has become institutionalized as a result of the diversification of stakeholders (especially municipal secretaries and health councils) and of the methods available for disclosure, even though balance sheets are still the most common type of information disclosed (which imply technical knowledge for interpretation of results). Finally, the information conveyed to the community still mainly refers to health actions and campaigns and functioning of health services, even though a larger amount of innovative information is being communicated. This was observed in all regions and in cities of all sizes, with a more progressive trend in the South of Brazil. Conclusions: The relationship between government and society has changed toward a more democratic standard of local governance, despite the maintenance of centralized government decision-making practices. The process of decentralization still faces important obstacles to the establishment of a more participative model, with enhanced social control, accountability and interaction between government and society. ItemGovernance and networks for health co-benefits of climate change mitigation: Lessons from two Indian cities(Elsevier Ltd, 2016) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N. H.Health has been the main driver for many urban environmental interventions, particularly in cases of significant health problems linked to poor urban environmental conditions. This paper examines empirically the links between climate change mitigation and health in urban areas, when health is the main driver for improvements. The paper aims to understand how systems of urban governance can enable or prevent the creation of health outcomes via continuous improvements in the environmental conditions in a city. The research draws on cases from two Indian cities where initiatives were undertaken in different sectors: Surat (waste) and Delhi (transportation). Using the literature on network effectiveness as an analytical framework, the paper compares the cases to identify the possible ways to strengthen the governance and policy making process in the urban system so that each intervention can intentionally realize multiple impacts for both local health and climate change mitigation in the long term as well as factors that may pose a threat to long-term progress and revert back to the previous situation after initial achievements. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd ItemLost in participation: how local knowledge was overlooked in land use planning and risk governance in Tōhoku, Japan(Elsevier Ltd, 2016) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Fra Paleo, UrbanoThis article aims to identify gaps in public participation in land use planning to improve risk governance, using the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in 2011. Overreliance on technical information and on the opinion of experts is occurring side by side along with negligence of local knowledge and lack of effective public participation in decision-making, creating a sense of overconfidence regarding scientific knowledge and new infrastructure's abilities to withstand future disasters. Using the case study method in GEJE, our research identified three main overall gaps in participation. Firstly, a lot of local knowledge from previous experiences was not incorporated into land use plans in the region even after similar events in the past. Secondly, there was technical information that alerted to possible risks for land use in certain areas, but this information did not impede development in risk areas due to lack of effective participation in the land use planning processes. Finally, Japan allows participation in many land use planning process, but some of the most important decisions, such as on the sitting of nuclear plants had little or any local participation. Thus, strengthening public participation in land use by closing those three gaps could improve risk governance and resilience of localities to cope with large natural and technological disasters in the future. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. ItemPeace with hunger: Colombia's checkered experience with post-conflict sustainable community development in emerald-mining regions(MDPI AG, 2018) Franco, Isabel B.; Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Ali, Saleem H.The interactions between conflict and local development has puzzled scholars and practitioners alike. This article explores why the advent of peace in Colombia's emerald-mining regions for the past few years, as well as a broader national peace process, has not delivered the expected development dividends among mining communities. We contrast differences in stakeholders' perceptions between levels of governance (local, regional and national). Based on the research, we conclude that while stakeholder collaboration is successful at the regional and national levels of governance, it fails at the local level. While peace has allowed an increase in mainstream business investment in mining, this has concentrated production in a few hands leading to a deterioration in many aspects of community livelihoods and wealth distribution. There has been a shift in the concentration of wealth and production from traditional elites to large companies. Communities noted a loss of collective assets and lack of community and institutional capacity to overcome pressing issues in a post-conflict market economy that favors those who control capital and technology. Based on an evaluation of community perceptions through a focus group methodology, this study recommends ways to prepare and better coordinate stakeholders to engage with complex relationships, and protect community assets in a collaborative governance scenario. This research suggests that political reconciliation processes amid complex resource geographies require greater devolution and community engagement on post-conflict economic development during the peace process itself. © 2018 by the authors. ItemPolitical Institutions, Policymaking, and Policy Stability in Latin America(2011) Pereira Filho, Carlos Eduardo Ferreira; Singh, Shane P.; Mueller, Bernardo Pinheiro MachadoIn some Latin American nations, policy change occurs frequently, while in others it is stable, less prone to shifts with the prevailing political climate or shocks. The conditions under which institutional rules and the powers of key actors influence the capacity for governance vary, and this variation is seldom addressed in the literature. This project examines the effects of the interactions between key policymakers (the executive and the legislature) in Latin America on policy stability across different institutional frameworks. Countries with simultaneously strong executives and weak legislatures are shown to have unstable policy environments, as are countries with a history of unified government and, to a lesser extent, candidate-centered electoral systems. © 2011 University of Miami. ItemPublic administration for development: trends and the way forward(John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2015) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Jing, Yijia; Collins, PaulFor more than six decades, Public Administration and Development has witnessed the way practitioners' and scholars' understanding of public administration for development has evolved. This issue has the objective of reviewing the general trends and knowledge gaps and pinpointing new research topics. Several key aspects of public administration for development were discussed in the 'Symposium on Public Administration for Development: Trends and the Way Forward'. It was held at Fudan University in Shanghai in May-June 2014 to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the journal. This opening essay captures the global trends, setting out its implications for the search into alternative models of public administration and development, particularly reflecting on Asia. The forthcoming Post-2015 Development Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) promoted by the United Nations will pose major challenges as the public administrations are ill-prepared to deal with it. The seven essays themselves engage in key areas of unfinished businesses in setting a research agenda for debates in the future. The authors present a comprehensive, state of the art of the knowledge and the main debates in their areas of expertise. In doing so, they cover a wide range of topics that are relevant for practitioners, students and scholars interested in public administration in both transitional and developing countries.