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ItemAIDS advocacy and intellectual property regulation in Brazil: information and influence(International AIDS Society, 2014) Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I. ItemBrazil's health-care reform: Social movements and civil society(2011) Teixeira, Sônia Maria Fleury ItemA deterministic worldview promotes approval of state paternalism(Academic Press Inc., 2017) Hannikainen, Ivar; Cabral, Gabriel; Machery, Edouard; Struchiner, NoelThe proper limit to paternalist regulation of citizens' private lives is a recurring theme in political theory and ethics. In the present study, we examine the role of beliefs about free will and determinism in attitudes toward libertarian versus paternalist policies. Throughout five studies we find that a scientific deterministic worldview reduces opposition toward paternalist policies, independent of the putative influence of political ideology. We suggest that exposure to scientific explanations for patterns in human behavior challenges the notion of personal autonomy and, in turn, undermines libertarian arguments against state paternalism appealing to autonomy and personal choice. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. ItemDireitos sociais e restrições financeiras: escolhas trágicas sobre universalização(2011) Teixeira, Sônia Maria Fleury ItemDynamic sets of potentially interchangeable connotations: A theory of mental objects(2008) Linhares, AlexandreAnalogy-making is an ability with which we can abstract from surface similarities and perceive deep, meaningful similarities between different mental objects and situations. I propose that mental objects are dynamically changing sets of potentially interchangeable connotations. Unfortunately, most models of analogy seem devoid of both semantics and relevance-extraction, postulating analogy as a one-to-one mapping devoid of connotation transfer. © 2008 Cambridge University Press. ItemGovernança local no sistema descentralizado de Saúde no Brasil(2010) Teixeira, Sônia Maria Fleury; Ouverney, Assis Luiz Mafort; Kronemberger, Thais Soares; Zani, Felipe BarbosaObjective: To analyze the changes in local health care governance resulting from the decentralization process associated with the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil between 1996 and 2006. Methods: A questionnaire was answered in 1996 and again in 2006 by all city officials involved in health care management in Brazil. Information was collected on the innovative characteristics of administrative practices in terms of three dimensions: social, management, and care. The present article analyzes the results relating to the social dimension (relationship between municipal officials and the various community actors) according to four attributes: preparing the budget (degree of influence of various actors), establishing priorities, accountability, and flow of information to the community. Results: The influence of municipal secretaries of health and health councils on budget preparation has increased, with a decrease of local politician influence. In prioritizing health issues, local politicians and spontaneous demands have also become less influential, with strengthening of the influence of technical opinions and proposals by health councils and conferences. Public disclosure of results has become institutionalized as a result of the diversification of stakeholders (especially municipal secretaries and health councils) and of the methods available for disclosure, even though balance sheets are still the most common type of information disclosed (which imply technical knowledge for interpretation of results). Finally, the information conveyed to the community still mainly refers to health actions and campaigns and functioning of health services, even though a larger amount of innovative information is being communicated. This was observed in all regions and in cities of all sizes, with a more progressive trend in the South of Brazil. Conclusions: The relationship between government and society has changed toward a more democratic standard of local governance, despite the maintenance of centralized government decision-making practices. The process of decentralization still faces important obstacles to the establishment of a more participative model, with enhanced social control, accountability and interaction between government and society. ItemGovernance and networks for health co-benefits of climate change mitigation: Lessons from two Indian cities(Elsevier Ltd, 2016) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N. H.Health has been the main driver for many urban environmental interventions, particularly in cases of significant health problems linked to poor urban environmental conditions. This paper examines empirically the links between climate change mitigation and health in urban areas, when health is the main driver for improvements. The paper aims to understand how systems of urban governance can enable or prevent the creation of health outcomes via continuous improvements in the environmental conditions in a city. The research draws on cases from two Indian cities where initiatives were undertaken in different sectors: Surat (waste) and Delhi (transportation). Using the literature on network effectiveness as an analytical framework, the paper compares the cases to identify the possible ways to strengthen the governance and policy making process in the urban system so that each intervention can intentionally realize multiple impacts for both local health and climate change mitigation in the long term as well as factors that may pose a threat to long-term progress and revert back to the previous situation after initial achievements. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd ItemHow much should cost a medical consultation? A marketing analysis from the viewpoint of health sector in Brazil(Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2016) Pádua Filho, Wagner Cardoso de; Pádua, Gabriela C. C.The health sector has undergone profound changes regarding their business model. Today there are strong pressures for lower prices, which resulted from an increasingly competitive market that seeks to optimize resources. The service provided by a medical professional has undergone major transformations, supported in the past by social, ethical values, quality of care, humanization and optimization of labor, and quality of life, and are recently turned into a mercantilist model focused on the production scale, mass care, and profit. This article discusses about the variables that influence the pricing of medical services and the various issues involved in quality and perceived value of these services by the customer. This knowledge is extremely useful to help medical professionals in formatting price in its different services. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014. ItemIdentification of patients' needs and expectations in a cataract clinic connected with a university public hospital(2005) Silveira, José Agenor Mei; Hayashi, Luciana; Scarpi, Marinho JorgePurpose: To identify patients' needs and expectations in a cataract clinic connected with a university public hospital - Cataract Institute - Department of Ophthalmology - Paulista School of Medicine (UNIFESP). Method: A descriptive transverse study was carried out with the patients enrolled in the clinic, distributed in two groups: those who were operated on and those who were not. Patients were approached in two stages: 1) conduct the study in four focus groups to identify the patients' most valued attributes (qualitative study); 2) a questionnaire was designed based on the main attributes and was submitted to a sample of patients (quantitative study). Results: The patients' main expectations are related to: 1) the treatment results; 2) more comfortable waiting facilities; 3) be treated with respect by all the caregivers; and 4) the technological devices used in their treatments. The highest rates of satisfaction were the information material, physician care, and medical devices; the lowest rates of satisfaction were telephone service, physical environment, queue arrangements, and making contact. Conclusions: The evaluation of the services as well as the institution's public image is positive. The main reasons for choosing the clinic are related to economic and financial aspects and the majority of the patients would use the services again and would also recommend the clinic to other people. ItemThe Monty Hall problem revisited: autonomic arousal in an inverted version of the game(Public Library of Science, 2018) Massad, Eduardo; Santos, Paulo Cesar Costa dos; Rocha, Armando Freitas da; Stupple, Edward J. N.The asymmetry of autonomic arousal for potential losses and gains was assessed by the galvanic skin response (GSR) of participants playing classic and inverted versions of the Monty Hall problem (MHP). In both versions, the prize remained the same (a pen valued at €10 for the right answer), but in the modified version, prizes were received prior to choosing the door. Both experimental groups showed increased levels of GSR while completing the task, demonstrating increased autonomic arousal during the game. However, a robust difference in GSR was detected between classic and inverted versions of the MHP, thus demonstrating the differing autonomic arousal involved in deciding between the alternatives presented by the game. Participants experienced a stronger autonomic response when they could lose the prize than when they could win the prize. This experiment presents the first demonstration of this effect on the MHP. The stronger autonomic arousal for the inverted task may indicate a stronger emotional reaction and/or greater attentional focus than for the standard version of the task. These data demonstrate that potential losses increase arousal in more complex tasks than is typically shown. © 2018 Massad et al. ItemSelling your soul while negotiating the conditions: from notice and consent to data control by design(Springer Verlag, 2017) Belli, Luca; Schwartz, Molly; Louzada, LuizaThis article claims that the Notice and Consent (N&C) approach is not efficient to protect the privacy of personal data. On the contrary, N&C could be seen as a license to freely exploit the individual’s personal data. For this reason, legislators and regulators around the world have been advocating for different and more efficient safeguards, notably through the implementation of the Privacy by Design (PbD) concept, which is predicated on the assumption that privacy cannot be assured solely by compliance with regulatory frameworks. In this sense, PbD affirms that privacy should become a key concern for developers and organisations alike, thus permeating new products and services as well as the organisational modi operandi. Through this paper, we aim at uncovering evidences of the inefficiency of the N&C approach, as well as the possibility to further enhance PbD, in order to provide the individual with increased control on her personal data. The paper aims at shifting the focus of the discussion from “take it or leave it” contracts to concrete solutions aimed at empowering individuals. As such, we are putting forth the Data Control by Design (DCD) concept, which we see as an essential complement to N&C and PbD approaches advocated by data-protection regulators. The technical mechanisms that would enable DCD are currently available (for example, User Managed Access (UMA) v1.0.1 Core Protocol). We, therefore, argue that data protection frameworks should foster the adoption of DCD mechanisms in conjunction with PbD approaches, and privacy protections should be designed in a way that allows every individual to utilise interoperable DCD tools to efficiently manage the privacy of her personal data. After having scrutinised the N&C, PbD and DCD approaches we discuss the specificities of health and genetic data, and the role of DCD in this context, stressing that the sensitivity of genetic and health data requires special scrutiny from regulators and developers alike. In conclusion, we argue that concrete solutions allowing for DCD already exist and that policy makers should join efforts together with other stakeholders to foster the concrete adoption of the DCD approach. © 2017, IUPESM and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.