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ItemDeterminants of urban mobility in India: lessons for promoting sustainable and inclusive urban transportation in developing countries(Elsevier Sci Ltd, 2016-08) Ahmad, Sohail; Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim deStudies from developed economies have analyzed the key factors for understanding urban mobility, which are important to design appropriate interventions to reduce the volume of transport needs and to promote more sustainable modes of transportation. However, there are limited studies in urban areas of developing economies, which can hinder our capacity to formulate sustainable transport policies that are fit for the reality of those countries. In order to fill this gap, this study quantifies the influence of city features and socio-economic and socio-cultural variables on mobility patterns to identify evidence-based policy interventions for promoting more inclusive and sustainable transportation paths. The research estimates the amount of public and private transport (proxied by out-of-pocket travel expenditure) and modal choices, employing multivariate analyses, using a nationally representative household survey from the 98 largest Indian cities. Findings reveal that densification in Indian cities reduces the amount of transport as well as enhances the probability of using public transport. Small and medium sized cities predominantly use private transport, whereas large cities prefer public transport but lack non-motorized transportation. Moreover, income is the most important determinant of the amount of transport and the use of motorized and private transport. The top quintile is the only with positive income elasticity of transport demand. Results show that public and non-motorized transport infrastructures will provide sustainable and inclusive development, besides other co-benefits, such as energy security. Based on these findings, several policy recommendations are proposed to improve the sustainability and inclusivity of urban mobility in Indian cities. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ItemFuel switching in slum and non-slum households in urban India(Elsevier Sci Ltd, 2015-05-01) Ahmad, Sohail; Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim deImproving access to modern fuels is essential in developing countries for reducing adverse human health and environmental impacts caused by traditional fuels. Fuels use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. This paper estimates drivers of fuel switching in non-slum and slum households in urban India, using a discrete choice model on a nationally representative micro data. The choices considered are three categories of cooking fuels: traditional firewood, dung, crop residue and coal/charcoal; modern kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); and mixed fuels. The results suggest that the patterns of fuels use are consistent with the energy ladder theory in urban India. In addition to income, the major determinants of modern fuels uptake are fuels prices, access to electricity and water supply, and education attainment. The increasing price of LPG affects the willingness to change fuels for low-income non-slum and the high-income slum households negatively. The analyses make a strong case for applying differential subsidies on modern fuels employing multidimensional aspects of poverty. Moreover, there is a need for partial diversion of existing fuels subsidies on improving physical and social capitals, which will result in uptake of modern fuels, particularly among disadvantaged communities. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ItemGovernance and networks for health co-benefits of climate change mitigation: Lessons from two Indian cities(Elsevier Ltd, 2016) Oliveira, José Antônio Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N. H.Health has been the main driver for many urban environmental interventions, particularly in cases of significant health problems linked to poor urban environmental conditions. This paper examines empirically the links between climate change mitigation and health in urban areas, when health is the main driver for improvements. The paper aims to understand how systems of urban governance can enable or prevent the creation of health outcomes via continuous improvements in the environmental conditions in a city. The research draws on cases from two Indian cities where initiatives were undertaken in different sectors: Surat (waste) and Delhi (transportation). Using the literature on network effectiveness as an analytical framework, the paper compares the cases to identify the possible ways to strengthen the governance and policy making process in the urban system so that each intervention can intentionally realize multiple impacts for both local health and climate change mitigation in the long term as well as factors that may pose a threat to long-term progress and revert back to the previous situation after initial achievements. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd ItemIdentidade, status e instituições internacionais: o caso do Brasil, da Índia e do tratado de não proliferação(Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Relações Internacionais, 2010-12-01) Stuenkel, OliverIn order to understand how we can explain rising powers' behavior towards international institutions, this article analyzes the case of Brazil, India and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in more depth and shows that neither realists nor liberal institutionalists can fully explain both countries' behavior. In the article it is argued that status and identity, both largely overlooked by realism and liberalism, play a key role. Both Brazil and India share a fundamental conviction that they are 'great powers' (or on their way to becoming one), and their decision to integrate into a particular institution depends on this institutions' ability to confer status on the emerging powers that is compatible with the rising powers' identity. As the example of the NPT shows, status and identity override other, more commonly accepted determinants for states' behavior such as security concerns. ItemImmutable clauses and judicial review in India, Brazil and South Africa: expanding constitutional courts' authority(The International Journal of Human Rights, 2011-05-04) Mohallem, Michael Freitas ItemIndia’s Priorities as an Emerging Power(2010-06-09) Prakash, B. S.Palestra do Embaixador da Índia no Brasil, B.S. Prakash. O Embaixador atua no Brasil desde Agosto de 2008 e é diplomata de carreira desde 1975. Serviu na Alemanha, Arábia Saudita e Áustria em diversos âmbitos, foi Embaixador em Uganda (1998-2001) e ministro-chefe da missão diplomática do Sri Lanka (1995-98). Atuou, ainda, a serviço do Ministério de Relações Exteriores como o chefe da divisão das Nações Unidas. Foi Cônsul-Geral da Índia (com grau de Embaixador) na Costa Oeste dos EUA. Atuou como representante da Índia junto à International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), em Viena, e liderou missões diplomáticas para a discussão de agendas políticas de desarmamento, resolução de conflitos, operações de paz e direito internacional. ItemMethods for multicountry studies of corporate governance: evidence from the BRIKT countries(Elsevier Science Sa, 2014-12) Black, Bernard S.; Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Khanna, Vikramaditya; Kim, Woochan; Yurtoglu, BurcinWe discuss empirical challenges in multicountry studies of the effects of firm-level corporate governance on firm value, focusing on emerging markets. We assess the severe data, 'construct validity', and endogeneity issues in these studies, propose methods to respond to those issues, and apply those methods to a study of five major emerging markets Brazil, India, Korea, Russia, and Turkey. We develop unique time-series datasets on governance in each country. We address construct validity by building country-specific indices which reflect local norms and institutions. These similar-but-not-identical indices predict firm market value in each country, and when pooled across countries, in firm fixed-effects (FE) and random-effects (RE) regressions. In contrast, a 'common index', which uses the same elements in each country, has no predictive power in FE regressions. For the country-specific and pooled indices, FE and RE coefficients on governance are generally lower than in pooled OLS regressions, and coefficients with extensive covariates are generally lower than with limited covariates. These results confirm the value of using FE or RE with extensive covariates to reduce omitted variable bias. We develop lower bounds on our estimates which reflect potential remaining omitted variable bias, (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ItemSenior entrepreneurship in emerging markets: evidence from the global entrepreneurship monitor(2021-02-11) Stoyanov, Dimitar KrasimirovThis paper identifies the reasons for the higher level of senior entrepreneurship in developing countries compared to developed countries. The study focuses mainly on the five biggest emerging markets – China, India, Brazil, Russia and Mexico. It uses data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2016/17, 2017/18, 2018/19, 2019/20 and interviews with local experts to test twenty possible determinants of senior entrepreneurship in developing countries from the existing literature. The study finds that there is a moderate to strong relationship between the level of senior entrepreneurship and three of the twenty factors. Entrepreneurial intentions is the most important factor for the level of senior entrepreneurship. The other two factors that are positively correlated with senior entrepreneurship activity are confidence in one’s skills and the median age of a nation. This study should be of interest to policy makers, financial institutions and investors. The main limitations of this study are that it generalizes a complex phenomenon across a set of heterogeneous countries and relies to a large extend on a correlational analysis that in theory does not prove the existence of causal relationship between the variables. ItemWhat matters and for which firms for corporate governance in emerging markets? Evidence from Brazil (and other BRIK countries)(Elsevier Science Bv, 2012-09) Black, Bernard S.; Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Gorga, Érica Cristina RochaA central issue in corporate governance research is the extent to which 'good' governance practices are universal (one size mostly fits all) or instead depend on country and firm characteristics. We report evidence that supports the second view. We first conduct a case study of Brazil, in which we survey Brazilian firms' governance practices at year-end 2004, construct a corporate governance index, and show that the index, as well as subindices for ownership structure, board procedure, and minority shareholder rights, predicts higher lagged Tobin's q. In contrast to other studies, greater board independence predicts lower Tobin's q. Firm characteristics also matter: governance predicts market value for nonmanufacturing (but not manufacturing) firms, small (but not large) firms, and high-growth (but not low-growth) firms. We then extend prior studies of India, Korea, and Russia, and compare those countries to Brazil, to assess which aspects of governance matter in which countries, and for which types of firms. Our 'multi-country' results suggest that country characteristics strongly influence both which aspects of governance predict firm market value, and at which firms that association is found. They support a flexible approach to governance, with ample room for firm choice. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.