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ItemFintechs as promoters of women’s financial inclusion: a comparative case study between Brazil, China and Kenya(2022-01-11) Corrêa, Marina FariaDiscussions around the importance of women’s financial inclusion are a result of two main multidimensional issues: financial inclusion itself and gender equality. From the 1.7 billion people in this world that do not have a bank account, women represent 56% according to the World Bank Global Findex in 2017 (World Bank 2017). The representation is alarming, but worse is the fact that the breach between men and women remain virtually the same for a decade. Gender equality remains what it seems an unattainable goal despite major advancements in technology, sciences and human rights, and when it comes to the access, usage and quality of financial products and services this pattern unfortunately does not differ. Even though encouraging women to manage their own financial resources can have tremendous impact in poverty reduction, economic growth and global progress (Vargas and Santos 2021; Mayoux 2011), the intrinsic social, economic and market barriers faced by households, female entrepreneurs and women in general to open a bank account or access a loan persist. Nevertheless, recent changes in the financial industry promoted by Fintechs have had a relevant impact in the way women perceive their relationship with financial institutions. Such companies presented an innovative approach in designing and providing financial products, based on customer’s needs, leverage by technology and customer experience. This study focuses on understanding the background barriers that throughout history have limited the access of women to financial products. Moreover, it creates a framework based on qualitative research that establishes an ecosystem of variables that should be applied to women`s situation on different contexts serving as a foundation for comparison. This framework was used in a case comparative approach among Brazil, China and Kenya, concluding that Fintechs do hold the potential to promote women`s financial inclusion. ItemHow electronic payments can support the achievement of financial inclusion goals(2021-12-14) Smolarsky, Arthur FernandesThe access to affordable financial services is critical to poverty reduction and economic growth, that is the reason why the theme inspires public policy for many countries with the objective to foster development through access to financial services for all. Regulatory changes and technological innovation have helped the expansion of financial services, payment methods could be listed as one of the catalysts to this revolution. Our contribution to the literature is based on two pillars. First, we expand the large body of research that focuses on financial inclusion based on its definition and on the analysis of payment methods. We provide an unique analysis of the quality dimension of payments, while exploring the access and usage dimensions. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of two cases, M-Pesa, one of the most successful stories of mobile money implementation in Kenya, the world’s first country to implement a major mobile money service and PIX, the Brazilian instant payment created by the BCB that provides the possibility to transfer resources between accounts in a few seconds, any time or day. Through the literature and analyzed cases we were able to observe both best practices and possible impacts of the adoption of electronic payment methods, this way we were able to structure parallels about the expected growth of PIX and how the instant payment method can work as a tool for financial inclusion. It is important to emphasize that there are significant differences between the M-Pesa success story and the Brazilian implementation context and PIX is still taking its first steps, that is why the suggested next steps are related to exploring a larger volume of historical data to generate even more information about the impact of adopting the new payment method with regard to financial inclusion.