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ItemAd-valorem tax incidence and after-tax price adjustments: evidence from Brazilian basic basket food(Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-11) Politi, Ricardo Batista; Mattos, EnlinsonRecent empirical work on tax incidence suggests that after-tax price responses are independent of the tax change direction. This paper investigates asymmetric price responses to ad-valorem tax changes in the Brazilian food market for 10 goods in 16 states during the period 19942008. Our results suggest that when tax rates increase, tax full shifting occurs for 2 of the 10 goods and tax overshifting occurs for one of the 10 goods; the price response to tax cuts is an undershifting for all goods. Moreover, this last result is similar to our estimation of (average) tax incidence (undershifting). We also investigate the short-term and long-term relationships between prices and VAT rate parameters and find that prices seem to respond to tax shocks within four months. ItemUma análise da concorrência no setor brasileiro de celulose(2005-12-15) Videira, Raphael AlmeidaThis paper studies the brazilian pulp industry and tries to answer two main questions. The first is about the definition of geographic relevant market. The second one intends to verify the existance of market power in this industry. The product relevant market, bleached eucalyptus pulp, was defined by qualitative aspects. The first question used a methodology proposed by Forni (2004), who used unit root tests (ADF and KPSS) to define the geographic relevant market. The results of these tests indicated an international geographic relevant market which was corroborated analysing the functioning of this market. After these tests, a market power test was done, because in this market, the world leader is a brazilian company, Aracruz. This test was proposed by Mayo, Kaserman e Kahai (1996) and they used a demand residual model. The estimation of this test was proposed by Motta (2004). The results indicated that Aracruz does not have market power in this sector. ItemConcentração nos mercados brasileiros de seguros, previdência e capitalização(2007-07-16) Rodriguez, Rodolfo ArashiroInsurance markets under supervision of SUSEP have shown decrease in number of companies and increase in Herfindahl Hirschman Index. This potential issue is undermined by Gini Index and other market Power tests that indicate that prices were not affected accordingly. International experience shows concentration to be higher in life insurance than non life insurance. This fact has impact in prices, which are higher in life insurance market, and indicates relevant differences between life and non life insurance markets. ItemConnecting income distribution to market power and debt default with different degrees of inputs substitutability(2016-12-16) Souza, Tiago Carvalho Machado deThis dissertation is composed of two articles in applied economics. The first intends to develop a better understanding of how economies’ income distribution relates to pricing decisions of firms with market power. The goal is to identify variables that induce companies’ price changes looking to the demand side — instead of the more usual supply side explanations. It is an intuitive framework that allows bringing together otherwise con-flicting results of the empirical literature. The economy’s per-capita income, income share of buyers and companies’ market size (share of population that purchases their goods) are factors that determine their pricing behavior and help explaining patterns observed in reality. The second article is about countries’ decision to not repay their public debt. The focus, however, is on the relative scarcity of productive inputs that results from defaulting, and how easy it is to substitute among them. It is a different way of looking at the economic costs generated when governments miss to pay their debts. The environment built provides interesting results, as for example interest rate spreads that emerge by just changing inputs’ elasticity of substitution, without relying on differences in agents’ risk aversion. ItemCreditor's protection and bank loans: lack of competition hampers bankruptcy reform's effects(2015-08-25) Andrade, Rodrigo Augusto Silva deThis dissertation investigates how credit institutions’ market power limits the effects of creditor protection rules on the interest rate and the spread of bank loans. We use the Brazilian Bankruptcy Reform of June/2005 (BBR) as a legal event affecting the institutional environment of the Brazilian credit market. The law augments creditor protection and aims to improve the access of firms to the credit market and to reduce the cost of borrowing. Either access to credit or the credit cost are also determined by bank industry competition and the market power of suppliers of credit. We derive a simple economic model to study the effect of market power interacting with cost of lending. Using an accounting and operations dataset from July/2004 to December/2007 provided by the Brazilian Central Bank, we estimate that the lack of competition in the bank lending industry hinders the potential reducing effect of the BBR on the interest rate of corporate loans by approximately 30% and on the spread by approximately 23%. We also find no statistical evidence that the BBR affected the concentration level of the Brazilian credit market. We present a brief report on bankruptcy reforms around the world, the changes in the Brazilian legislation and on some recent related articles in our introductory chapter. The second chapter presents the economic model and the testable hypothesis on how the lack of competition in the lending market limits the effects of improved creditor protection. In this chapter, we introduce our empirical strategy using a differences-in-differences model and we estimate the limiting effect of market power on the BBR’s potential to reduce interest rates and on the spread of bank loans. We use the BBR as an exogenous event that affects collateralized corporate loans (treatment group) but that does not affect clean consumer loans (control group) to identify these effects, using different concentration measures. In Chapter 3, we propose a two-stage empirical strategy to handle the H–Statistics proposed by Panzar and Rosse as a measure of market competition. We estimate the limiting effects of the lack of competition in replacing the concentration statistics by the H–Statistics. Chapter 4 presents a structural break test of the concentration index and checks if the BBR affects the dynamic evolution of the concentration index. ItemDid government regulations lead to inflated credit ratings?(INFORMS Inst.for Operations Res.and the Management Sciences, 2018) Behr, Patrick Gottfried; Kisgen, Darren J.; Taillard, Jérôme P.Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations in 1975 gave select rating agencies increased market power by increasing both barriers to entry and the reliance on ratings for regulations. We test whether these regulations led to ratings inflation. We find that defaults and negative financial changes are more likely for firms given the same rating if the rating was assigned after the SEC action. Furthermore, firms initially rated Baa in the post-regulation period are 19% more likely to be negatively downgraded to speculative grade than firms rated Baa in the pre-regulation period. These results indicate that the market power derived from the SEC led to ratings inflation. © 2016 INFORMS. ItemEstudo de poder de mercado em sistemas de geração de energia elétrica(2017-08-14) Piotto, DiegoO sistema elétrico brasileiro sofreu grandes mudanças em sua regulação nas últimas décadas no intuito de aumentar a eficiência de mercado baseando-se no incentivo a competição entre os agentes. O incentivo a entrada de geradores privados tem gerado resultados significativos a competição e tem provocado uma reestruturação que tem modificado a operação antes totalmente centralizada para modelos descentralizados que estimulam a competição entre agentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é, partir do artigo de Barroso Et al. (2001), onde é obtido a ação de poder de mercado em sistemas hidrotérmicos para ambiente competitivo e de mínimo custo tanto para modelo estático como modelo dinâmico, desenvolver o modelo de comportamento dos agentes para situações de colusão entre agentes price makers tanto para o modelo estático como para o dinâmico. Além disso obter as taxas de juros limites para o desvio da colusão. Será demostrado que em mercados com poucos agentes, o benefício de se desviar da colusão somente ocorre para altas taxas de desconto. Com a inclusão de maior quantidade de agentes, identifica-se que o incentivo ao desvio da colusão possui taxas descrentes. Será apresentado que para modelos acoplados no tempo o comportamento de um possível conluio fará com que os agentes sustentem o preço spot mais elevado, mesmo em períodos de baixa afluência. ItemThe impact of market power at bank level in risk-taking: The Brazilian case(Elsevier Inc., 2014) Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; Gomes, Guilherme M. R.; Medeiros Júnior, Maurício da SilvaThis paper seeks to examine the competitive behavior of the Brazilian banking industry by conducting an analysis at the level of individual banks to gain an understanding of how the risk-taking behaviors of banks are affected by their degree of market power. Our results suggest that the Brazilian banking industry is characterized by monopolistic competition. Our foremost finding is that the market power of Brazilian banks is negatively related to their risk-taking behavior, regardless of changes in banks' capital levels. Banks that experience a decline in market power, while simultaneously increasing their capital levels, tend to assume higher risk levels. After the Global Financial Crisis period, we find that Private and Foreign banks became risk averse. We also verify that State-Owned banks engaged in riskier activities to increase their market share after the crisis. These results have important implications for the design of appropriate financial regulations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ItemA media and entertainment colossus: the acquisition of 21st Century Fox by The Walt Disney Company(2019-06-24) Krafczyk, Marius PeterObjetivo - O objetivo desta tese é investigar a aquisição da 21st Century Fox pela The Walt Disney Company. O foco está na lógica por trás da motivação da Disney para adquirir seu concorrente. Para responder à pergunta, a tese visa responder a três questões preliminares: (1) Quais são os fatores estratégicos por trás da aquisição? (2) Quais são os fatores financeiros por trás da aquisição? (3) Quais são os impactos no setor de mídia e entretenimento pela transação? Metodologia - O design da dissertação é um estudo de caso, pois o trabalho visa determinar a exploração e descrição de um evento. A fonte primária de informação é secundária e consiste em pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa. Para a pesquisa qualitativa, foi realizada uma entrevista com especialistas e uma análise de conteúdo dos dados, coletada em pesquisas secundárias. Para a análise quantitativa, foram examinados relatórios anuais e banco de dados, a fim de realizar uma avaliação financeira utilizando o método de fluxo de caixa descontado e o método de avaliação relativa. Resultados - Verificou-se que a crescente força de provedores de serviços de conteúdo exagerados, como a Netflix, está ameaçando os negócios tradicionais de empresas de mídia como a Disney. A Disney tenta mitigar a ameaça de transformar serpentinas entrando no mercado direto ao consumidor com seu próprio serviço, Disney +. Em seguida, deseja aproveitar as marcas da Fox para criar afinidade com a marca e gerar receita monetária cruzada. Além disso, o poder de mercado da Disney nos negócios tradicionais aumenta, devido à participação consolidada no mercado e a Disney estava avaliando a Fox mais alto que o mercado. Portanto, a transação suporta a entrada da Disney em um novo mercado e fortalece a posição atual do mercado. Contribuições práticas - A dissertação preenche uma lacuna de conhecimento, uma vez que não foram divulgados estudos sobre o tema selecionado. Agora, serve como material de ensino para palestras que cobrem fusões e aquisições, além de identificar a falta de avaliação da propriedade intelectual nas análises financeiras. Por fim, serve como um documento informativo para investidores que consideram investir em ações da Disney. ItemRegulação do mercado aeroportuário: avaliação empírica para distinguir efeitos da escassez e do poder de mercado sobre preços das passagens aéreas(2022-10-07) Tostes, Leonardo Monteiro de SouzaO presente trabalho examina os impactos isolados do poder de mercado e da internalização do congestionamento aeroportuário no mercado de aviação civil brasileiro, bem como avalia a presença e a magnitude destes efeitos de forma combinada sobre os preços dos voos domésticos. Para isso, foi desenvolvido um modelo econométrico para estimar uma equação de preços utilizando variáveis dummies para comparar as diferenças existentes nos preços cobrados por companhias aéreas dominantes em aeroportos congestionados vis-à-vis aqueles praticados por outras empresas com e sem a presença de congestionamento. Foram encontradas evidências de inexistência de prêmio por dominância, por escassez e, também, de hub premium. Os resultados sugerem que as economias de escala, escopo e densidade obtidas a partir da concentração de slots em aeroportos congestionados mais do que compensam os efeitos do poder de mercado e da internalização do congestionamento. ItemThree essays on trade credit and market power(2016-09-21) Gonçalves, Adalto BarbaceiaThis thesis addresses a fundamental question about trade credit: does market power matter? We answer this question by developing a theoretical framework and researching the empirical impact of market power in trade credit. Our work is organized in three essays. After the introduction section, the first essay encompasses a thorough selected literature review including 85 articles. The majority of this works were published in the last two decades in top ranked journals. Their findings are classified according to the theoretical approach and empirical results pros and cons. Our objective in this chapter is to shed light on the major conclusions and controversies in the state of art regarding trade credit extension. In our second essay we develop a theoretical model to explain the impact of market power in the product market and financial constraints on trade credit extension. Our model is based on a rational profit maximizing firm operating with a certain some market power represented by the price elasticity of its product and with customers presenting a certain degree of financial constraint which reflects in their trade credit term-sensitivity of demand. Besides showing the detailed deduction of this model using a non-linear programming approach (Kuhn-Tucker) we finish this chapter by showing the model implications compared to the trade credit literature. Finally in the third essay we investigate whether market power in the product market affects trade credit decisions. We exploit the 2007-08 credit crisis in the U.S. as an exogenous source of variation in firm external financing conditions, which in turn affects the firms’ ability to exert product market power towards their clients and suppliers. We find that firms with high market power increase their net trade credit days by more than 6 days relatively to firms with low market power during the financial crisis. This effect is economically significant as it represents more than 11% of the median receivable days of the firms in our sample. Our results contribute with the previous literature by documenting an effect of product market competition on trade credit decisions and by bringing into discussion a new dimension that is controversial in the trade credit literature. ItemTrade credit and product market power during a financial crisis(Elsevier B.V., 2018) Gonçalves, Adalto Barbaceia; Schiozer, Rafael Felipe; Sheng, Hsia HuaThis paper investigates whether product market power affects trade credit decisions. We exploit the 2007–08 credit crisis in the U.S. as a source of variation in the importance of product market power for trade credit. We find that a one standard deviation increase in market power is associated to a decrease in payables of approximately four days during the crisis, showing that high market power firms alleviate financial constraints from their suppliers to avoid the loss of monopoly rents. Our inferences are robust to structural and non-structural measures of market power, both at the firm and at the industry levels, and the inclusion of controls to address potential confounding effects deriving from other firm features, including financial constraints, industry specific shocks and macroeconomic effects. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. ItemVantagem competitiva que cresce em árvore: um estudo sobre integração vertical na cadeia de papel e celulose do Brasil(2017-11-30) Schmidt, Rodrigo de HolandaPurpose – The aim of this study was to comprehend the main determinant factors for vertical integration in the pulp and paper sector in Brazil, from a perspective of pulp manufacturers. Design/methodology – The research adopted a qualitative approach, through a multiple case study with three of the main companies in the pulp and paper sector in Brazil. The data collection was done through semi-structured interviews of executives of the selected companies. Findings – The main competitive advantage arises from the vertical integration backward, of the pulp mill towards the forestry. The main factors for this are the exercise of the market power of oligopoly by the pulp companies, assurance of supply of their main input, the wood, asset specificity of site, shortening the distance between the forest and the pulp mill, and mitigation of uncertainty. There is tapered integration of pulp mill and forestry, mainly due the use of advantages of site specificity of forest producers near the mill, the need to mitigate social risks and to develop a mature market for the commercialization of wood in the country. Research limitations – The main limitation of this work is the fact that the pulp sector is a concentrated oligopoly, with few companies, which restricts the diversity and number of respondents. Practical implications – The results can be applied to organizations in the pulp and paper sector, as well as to other capital-intensive industries with high dependence on a particular raw material. Originality– To our knowledge, this is the first study about vertical integration in the pulp and paper sector in Brazil.