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ItemBig data for sustainable urban development: creating evidence-based urban public policies(2021) Biderman, Ciro; Mendonça, Marcus Mentzingen de; Mello, Patricia Alencar Silva; Oshiro, Claudia Hiromi; Foditsch, Nathalia ItemCidades desejáveis e o impacto de iniciativas verdes para torná-las possíveis(2015-12-17) Lellis, Renata FacchiniThis paper deals with the impact of green initiatives for the improvement of urban development. The aim is feature some options to improve and extend green areas in São Paulo, verifying its impact on the city and on the extent of its transversal benefits. The applied methodology consists in briefly reviewing, the main concepts (and its converging points) for modelling desirable cities, as well as the definitions and experiences on some green initiatives that can be implemented in short and medium term with effective positive impact in cities. The analysis is guided by the current status and the tangible perspectives towards São Paulo’s actual situation, leading to a conclusion that there is currently an effort towards achieving sustainable policies and projects that can be optimized for the benefit of the city’s and it’s citzens’ quality of life. ItemDensity and scattered development: a tale of 10 Cities(Centro de Estudos de Política e Economia do Setor Público (CEPESP), 2012) Biderman, CiroThemes such as sprawl, compact city, leapfrogging, have been out of the economics literature for a long time despite the great interest of urban planners and citizens in general. This is changing fast since the 2000s. The Lincoln Institute has been playing a major role in the growth of this new agenda of research. One of the most relevant papers in theeconomics of sprawl (Buchfield et al, 2006) was first issued as a Lincoln Institute Working Paper in 2002. The Lincoln's Policy Focus Report by Angel et al (2011) represents the summary of a long run research pioneering in making a global sample with a very finedefinition. The former literature on density confuses causes and consequences. In part this is related to the fact that this phenomenon is very difficult to measure. The alternative envisioned in Clawson (1962) and applied in Bruchfield et al (2006) and Angel (2011) uses satellite images and its possibilities as a source of information for creating meaningful indicators of sprawl and density. The main assumption is that a clear conceptual and operational definition can facilitate research on the causes and consequences of sprawl and under or over density. This working paper build upon this new tradition of research and focus first on Latin America in the 1990s and then on 10 large metropolitan areas in Brazil in the last 15 years or so. ItemEstudo sobre a relação entre cliente e fornecedor em projetos de smart cities(2019-05-08) Santos, Vanessa Martins dosO aumento da urbanização é uma realidade e os desafios que ela traz estão nas agendas de governos, sociedade e empresas. Com o intuito de melhor atender às necessidades dessa população concentrada nas cidades, de forma sustentável e com qualidade de vida, surgem as Smart Cities que utilizam tecnologia para aprimorar e interconectar serviços, coletar dados, tratar e disponibilizá-los em formato que pode oferecer informações para a tomada de decisão e melhor gestão dos recursos disponíveis. Este trabalho é um estudo de caso sobre uma dessas iniciativas com o objetivo de mapear os desafios na relação entre cliente (cidades) e fornecedor (vendor de tecnologia) em um projeto que engloba desde a fase de proposta até a operação. É um estado de caso único sobre o projeto de Smart Cities na área de segurança pública em São José dos Campos. Sob a ótica de um projeto complexo, com vários envolvidos e interesses diversos, a pesquisa envolve a identificação dos principais desafios na relação clientefornecedor nesse caso e sugere-se um guia de boas práticas que auxilie em projetos futuros. ItemQue impactos esperar da participação na elaboração de políticas públicas? Proposta de um conjunto de critérios para avaliar o processo participativo do Plano Diretor de São Paulo(2016-09-29) Araujo, Theo Lovizio de; Maia, Camila BarrettoMany positive results are normally assigned to participation, ranging from the improvement of public policies to the democratization of the State and the promotion of a culture of participation in public affairs. In Brazil, participatory arrangements were broadly institutionalized in the past decades and are now a part or the legal framework that structures public administration. Very little was done, however, to establish standards to verify the efficacy of these arrangements. This work studies the participatory process for the elaboration of the Master Plan of the city of São Paulo ('Plano Diretor Estratégico'), held between March and September 2013 by the city’s Urban Development Secretary ('Secretaria Municipal de Desenvolvimento Urbano'). With the aim of suggesting a set of criteria for the evaluation of this and of other participatory processes, this study deepens its regard over the spaces of interaction between government and society during the elaboration of the Plan. Through the analysis of documents and qualitative research based on interviews with key participants and public administrators, it identifies and applies a set of evaluation criteria to the participatory process of the Master Plan. By doing this, it also reveals a double logic behind the relationship between State and society during the process. On the one hand, it comprised broad channels for participation and innovative efforts by the local authorities to put forward a methodology based on dialogue and consent. On the other hand, it was characterized by an active role of the State in managing the conflicts between a restricted number of organized sectors, such as the housing movement, the housing market and neighbor associations from Strictly Residential Areas ('Zonas Estritamente Residenciais'), in a relationship typical of corporativism. ItemTransportation and urban development in São Paulo: exploring how transportation has shaped and still shapes the city(2018-09-18) Costa, Adriano BorgesWhen the city sprawls, what came first, transportation or urban development? Can transportation be used to promote urban changes? What kind of changes in the built environment can we expect from transportation investments? Transportation is a critical factor explaining the morphology of an urban area. While historical aspects of transportation can determine the form of cities, new investments may also affect and change the surrounding built environment. The study of urban form and urban transportation is one of the elements that unite the two empirical essays comprising this thesis. Another aspect that recurs among the chapters of this manuscript is empirical analysis based in São Paulo. There is a lack of empirical results evidencing the interconnected development of road transportation and peripheral urban sprawl in São Paulo. In Chapter 1, we used Granger causality models and historical data on transportation and urban development to measure the co-development of these factors in the city between 1881 and 2013. Our findings confirm the hypothesis in the literature by showing that urban sprawl followed road transportation deployment, but this phenomenon also moved in the opposite direction, with sprawl pulling construction of new roadways. We explore how critical juncture decisions made during the 1930’s have prioritized road development instead of mass transit, that after that was no more capable to follow São Paulo’s urban sprawl. Nonetheless, we found evidence that mass transit investments have historically been followed by significant building densification in surrounding areas. In Chapter 2, we developed a short-term empirical analysis using a wider range of variables to explore how recent mass transportation investment is currently changing São Paulo’s neighborhoods, with particular attention to peripheral areas. Since the 1980`s, the urban condition of many peripheral areas has improved significantly, and middle-income families are moving to some of this “upgraded peripheries.” We used highly spatial disaggregated socioeconomic data from 2000 and 2010 and a differences-in-differences econometric method to access the impact of new bus corridors, subway lines, and train stations built in the early 2000s. Our findings show that the accessibility gains generated by these public transportation facilities have attracted new real estate projects, increased the number of jobs per capita, and led to better provision of some public services in surrounding peripheral areas, contributing to their urban consolidation. This result, added to the mentioned historical findings, reveals the potential which transportation investment has to change the built environment, whether by stimulating peripheral urban sprawl, inducing densification, or contributing to urban consolidation. The use of transit investments to induce urban transformations is receiving new attention as the concept of transit oriented development (TOD) attracts more adepts and evident that transportation and urban land use plans must be integrated. The factors are interrelated, and coordinated public interventions therefore have the potential to produce synergistic results. However, mass transit investments are among the most complex urban policies and present specific challenges for public policy studies, primarily related to intra- and inter-federative coordination in their implementation. ItemTransporte, fluxo de mercadoria e desenvolvimento econômico urbano na Amazônia: o caso de Belém e Manaus(Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, 2013-12-01) Jacobs, Wouter; Pegler, Lee; Reis, Manoel; Pereira, HenriqueThis paper addresses the fraught relationships among commodity trade, urban economic development and the environment in the world's largest rainforest reserve, in a historical narrative fashion. The conceptual framework in which we position this narrative is provided by Hesse (2010), in the 'site' and 'situation' dimensions of the interaction between places or locales on the one hand, and material flows or global value chains on the other. It is argued that the assemblage of both site and situation is what shapes the wealth of cities. The case study of Manaus and Belém shows how the rapid urbanization of the Amazon rainforest is accompanied by the growth of shipping as 'new' commodities are being extracted from the jungle interior.