Navegando por Assunto "Aprendizagem"
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ItemAnálise de resultados intermediários das políticas de bônus em escolas públicas estaduais brasileiras(2014-07-02) Bresolin, Antonio BaraBetween 2008 and 2011 bonuses program for people who work at state schools was implemented by a number of different Brazilian states. The aim was to stimulate the improvement of students’ performance. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the impact of those programs in 3 dimensions: 1 - teachers’ pedagogic practices, 2- absenteeism and teachers’ rotation, 3- interlocution with family members in order to ensure students’ presence at school. Data were collected from the Prova Brasil (Brazil Test) questionnaire, which was answered by principals, teachers and students from the treatment group schools and from the control group. The following items were taken into consideration: the variation in the years of implementation of the programs (dose), their difference in kind (type) and the different grades students were in (grade). The methodological approach for the proposed analysis was matching based on propensity score, followed by the calculation of differences in difference between the states that implemented this policy and those which did not. The results vary according to the grade and dose, with a positive impact in some of the categories of analysis: in dimension 1, there was an impact related to how often teachers correct homework; in dimension 2, results point to a reduction in director’s concern over teacher’s rotation and an increase in the perception that teacher’s absenteeism is a feature of the reality of state schools in Brazil; as for dimension 3, data reveal no significant impact. There is no conclusive evidence that financial reward is an efficient and successful way of promoting change in directors’ and teachers’ behavior, a change that would achieve intermediate results in the improvement of students’ learning skills. ItemAplicações da teoria de Piaget ao ensino da matemática elementar(1980-10-10) Melo, Magda Ivonete MontagniniThe aim of this study is the application of Jean Piaget's experimental and theoritical principles to the teaching of mathematics. Having in view the educational implications of the theory, we presented a proposal to systematize a teaching technique which aims at activating the mental structures through teaching mathematics. In summary, this work constitutes a synthesis of Piaget's theory of cognition development, and the cription of an experimental research which has the objective of evaluating the results of this methodology in activating the mental structures of the child. With this aim in view, two working groups formed (the experimental and the contron groups), were both with 21 students from medium superior and medi um inferior social classes, who were students of the second grade of private elementary schools in the city of Goiania (GO). To both groups an initial test was applied. During a teaching semester, the Piagetian methodology was applied in the teaching of mathematics of the experimental group, and, to the control group, a tradition methodology was utilized. After this work was done, a post-test was applied to both groups. A comparative study of the resulta obtained led us to verify the efficiency of the proposed methody and the fecundity of the teaching of mathematics under a Piagetian perspective. ItemAprendizagem e desenvolvimento cognitivo: um estudo sobre a possibilidade de intervenção(1989-10-04) Araujo, Tania Cristina Ferreira deThe main purpose of this thesis is the theoric of the possibi1ity, or not, of intervention in the superior discussed cognitive process using 1earning techniques. It is discussed a1so if these forms of intervention produce qua1itative1y significant gains in cognition. We believe that methods such as the 'Directed Elaboration', whose basic proposal is to make the children reflect upon contents of the world in which they are induded, as well as the methods which use technological instruments as the computer, can be considered ways of intervening in cognitive development. ItemAprendizagem no 3. grau: um estudo a partir da cadeira (disciplina) Psicologia I, no ciclo básico comum da área III, na Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo(1983) Rangel, Lucilia Batista AzevedoThe concern with the matter quality and quantity of learning in the academic level in Brasil, besides, the controversy aroused concerning the role of the Basic course in the Federal University of Espírito Santo, led to a deeper study of the difficulties of the teaching-learning process detected in subject of the Psychology I. A pilot survey showed the theoretical and methodological aspects that should be used. Starting from a theoretical reference, Karl Marx, Adam Schaff and Pierre Bourdieu were used when intending to analyse the formation of the human conscience (his vision of the world, of society and of himself). The Field Theory of Kurt Lewin was used as a more specific reference to what concerns the learning. In chapters 3 and 4, the problem was treated in a broader context together wi th approaches about the expansion of the academic leveI of learning in Brasil and the history of UFES. The empirical study was held in two school semesters. Professors of Psychology I were interviewed in order to check their ability to their function, their professional satisfaction and their view of the student and of the subject they teach. Questionnaires and interviews were applied to the Basic course students in order to gather data about their socio-economic level, motivation in what concerns their professional choice and their Psychology I. With the same objective, data were gathered from the Professional course students through questionnaires. The results showed that the difficulties were not essentially related to the theoretieal program that was developed as a pre-requisite to the other subjects of Psychology, specific to each professional course. It was clear that changes in the objectives and in the methodology to be adopted by the professors were needed so as to reach the students (bearrer of expectations, ideas, feelings, culture, level). At the end of the research, a pedagogics was proposed, directed to the group of professors of Psychology I from UFES. ItemAvaliação da aprendizagem no contexto socio-político educacional da Paraíba(1993) Tabosa, Maria do Socorro Nóbrega QueirogaThe recognition of school education as an indispensible means to achieving a larger and better quality insertion of the individual in the political, social, cultural and economic spheres; and the evaluation of the learning process as one of the most important teaching elements in the school failure phenomenon which impedes such an insertion, are the central factors which govern the present study. Our objective is to, through the study of school education and school failure, discuss and redimension the direction and avaluative practice on the basis of collective studies developed throughout the planning stage of a junior and senior public high school in the town ofPatos, Paraíba. We introduce into this study a general explanation about objectives, proposals, complemented and deepened by theoretical references to certain studies regarding the re lationship between school and society, and about evalations. We consider it important to describe the moments experienced during the research, whether it be with reference to the work carried out with the teaching faculty, as weIl as the everyday problems which arose in the school. We sought to place this within the socio-political and sindicate context predominant at that time. We trace the paths foIlowed in the field work, detailing the sampled research, the proceedures and instruments used within a process which gives priority to collective work and the views of teachers and pupils about the object of our study, evaluation. The resulting data trom these proceedures are discussed and evaluated trom the configuration of certain categories, and in the light of some presupposed theories and research carried out in other contexts. At the end we return to the inicial questions, producing evidence for concrete paths ofpossible change for this school as a result ofthe collective work carried out. ItemAvaliação da relação desenvolvimento cognitivo e proficiencia em programação na linguagem Logo: uma abordagem piagetiana(1987-09-28) Acunzo, Ieda Maria Malheiros ItemAvaliação e o novo cenário da educação(FGV Online, 2013-04-08) Capello, CláudiaO papel da avaliação no processo educacional vem sendo constantemente revisto e reformulado. A busca por modelos que privilegiem o processo é uma constante, e a necessidade de se criarem atividades que deem conta desses modelos, um desafio. O novo cenário da Educação, em que a informação não é, absolutamente, patrimônio exclusivo do professor, exige que se coadune a avaliação quantitativa, tão comum em nosso sistema educacional, com a avaliação formativa, que perpassa todo o processo de aprendizagem. ItemCaracterísticas de uma organização de aprendizagem: pesquisa em uma empresa brasileira(2003-03-06) Schikmann, RosaneTrata da identificação de características de uma organização de aprendizagem e do processo de aprendizagem organizacional. Analisa a empresa pesquisada em relação à transferência e retenção do conhecimento, comunicação e diálogo, reflexão coletiva, inovação, experimentação, mudança e ao pensamento sistêmico. ItemCognição institucional nas organizações: estudo exploratório da mudança organizacional através de aprendizagem nas organizações(1996-09-05) Sugo, Alberto IssaoA Aprendizagem Organizacional vista sob a perspectiva da Cognição Institucional da antropóloga Mary Douglas. Pesquisa empírica exploratória do perfil cosmológico e cognitivo de administradores em cursos de especialização em administração. Aplicação de Mary Douglas, Robert E. Quinn e Charles Hamden- Turner. ItemContribuições para a formação do administrador no mundo contemporâneo: uma abordagem psicossocial(2004) Domingues, IdeliThe purpose of this study was to search for the possible articulations of undergraduate students from Business Administration school, between the ideals of the future of the professional-to be, the dynamics of the classroom and the present job demand. The subjects were 50 (fifty) Psychology students of the second semester of the Business Administration course and their teachers. The research was focused in interviews of the students, in observation of the interaction dynamics in class, feedback on the group process in seminars with the students and analysis of final exams; questionnaires applied to the teachers; bibliographic inquiry on the Business Administration authors about interpersonal relationship. We ask: how do students, teachers and authors define a competent manager? Which strategies make easy the development of the necessary ability of the present manager? Which could be the possible facilitating strategies for the development of that ability in the undergraduate course? ItemCotas nas universidades e aprendizado escolar: modelo teórico e evidências empíricas(2010-06-25) Zylberstajn, EduardoThis work studies the consequences of affirmative action policies, specifically color-oriented quotas, on the learning of pupils during school. The literature on the subject is controversial; there are authors who argue theoretical and empirically that incentives to human capital accumulation decrease with this sort of policy, but there are also those who claim the opposite. In Brazil, there are only a few studies, especially theoretical ones. The empirical evidence are typically restricted to one or two states and this might be one of the reasons for these differences. The theoretical model presented in this work spells out conditions for the two situations (increase or decrease the effort) occur, and shows that the consequences of quotas are heterogeneous and depend on the students’ characteristics. The empirical evidence presented seems to corroborate that possibility, since the academic outcomes of black and white students may increase or decrease. ItemDa lousa ao iPad: adaptando o ensino da administração às novas gerações(RAE Publicações, 2012-05-12) Bertero, Carlos OsmarCom o passar do tempo, os cursos de Administração em todo o mundo tiveram que rever suas práticas de ensino e moldá-las às necessidades do mercado e das novas gerações. Atualmente, nota-se que a realidade nas salas de aula e na vida profissional do administrador é muito diferente do que há alguns anos. ItemDesnutrição e aprendizagem: uma abordagem sobre a controvertida relação(1988-07-21) Guimarães, Leda Cataldi de OliveiraThis research is about the controversial relation between undernourishment and learning, trying to identify what, if any, the cornrnon points in these two areas are. The objective of this study is to provide a theoretical and practical basis that allows a reflection and an analysis about the theme. We observed that .there are several different approachers to the relationship between undernourishment and learning and, for each dimension of the problem, we tried to offer the necessary thinking to the teaching-learning processo. This work also contains some data from a research done by i ts author wi th teachers and educational orientators from several schools of Municípío· do Rio de Janeiro. Although the research itself hasn't been the main-stream in study, its results can be useful for.the understanding the theme, as well as for other future works. this of According to the theoretical studies, conclude that there is no consensus about .the between undernourishment and learning since the don't exclude from their analyses the main points we can relation authors of other aprroaches. So, we can observe that this rich and polemical subject offers several dimensions about its that the educators have to work it out in the heir own reali ty. Even without pretensions of having aborded alI the theoretical references about the subject, this study álso aimed at.provoking a debate about it, to offer a help to the teachers as well as to supply neans for other researmes in this area. We must remark that the undernourishment problem is aIs o related to other sectors such as social, political, economics and cultural, so i t cannot be analysed in isolation and its study requires a detailed knowledge of the other areas as well. The two suppositions'that we arose at the begÍt'IDing of this study are still open, as, although undernourishment is not the only responsible for school failure, it is, probably, one of the factors that harm students' performance. ItemDificuldades não esperadas na primeira tutoria: uma visão da mentoria(FGV Online, 2014-12-15) Xavier, Neila Rockenbach; Guimarães, Débora Maria Lautenschläger PiccoliThe tutorship is one of the most tangible elements in the learning process undertaken by distance education institutions. It is required from the tutor commitment, organization, specific technical knowledge of the guidelines and internal processes. The dominance of these tools represents a delivery of distinctive value to the institution, and the tutor is an active part of the students’ knowledge acquisition. However problems in the conduction of tutorship may compromise the quality of the process and student learning. ItemDificuldades no processo de ensino: aprendizagem em matemática no 1. e 2. graus(1994-04-24) Nascimento, Maria Tereza CarmonaThis research focus on the difficults the Maths teachers find on their daily classes. It seems that these troubles, which have always existed, persist, despite all the attempts to solve them. The research work was developed through interviews, observations made during the classes and meetings, in which profesionals of the area took parto The most serious problems indicated were: the teachers graduation; the contents of the teaching programme; the learning process; the testing methods; and finally, the students' difficults. Each of these items was carefully analysed, in order to try to find practical solutions. The last item to be on the spot light was the difficults faced by the students, most of wich were confirmed by the test provided by the teachers, according to whom, just the most significant problems were actually broached. The conclusion obtained was that the practice of Maths in our schools is still inefficient. Its teaching doesn't fit the necessities of the society and teachers are discouraged by the low salaries. Moreover, the students get unacceptable marks and give their studies up. What is more, most books simply add or reduce contents. Finally, schools are still graduating passive people, unable to criticize constructively our subject (Maths). Due to the fact that the suggestions offered by the teachers are not taken seriously, we cannot be sure about the success of the future tries in this area. Curiously, the few positive results observed must be attributed to the teachers, who are always looking for practical and non-expensive solutions. At the end of the research work, suggestions prepared by the teachers were pointed up, most of which are believed to produce positive results in a short period of time. ItemEducação a Distância: avaliação dos instrumentos didáticos e sua relação com os estilos de aprendizagem(2010-08-30) Dal Zot, Wili Alberto BrancksO trabalho pesquisou a importância dos recursos didáticos utilizados na disciplina de Matemática Financeira do Curso de Administração a Distância realizado pela Escola de Administração da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, com base na percepção dos estudantes de uma das turmas. Os recursos instrucionais examinados foram: aulas gravadas em vídeo, exercícios, livro texto e comunicação professor/tutor-aluno através de 'chats'. As variáveis pesquisadas foram confrontadas entre si e com situações análogas vivenciadas pelos respondentes em aulas presenciais. Examinou-se também a influência dos estilos de aprendizagem nas preferências dos alunos quanto aos recursos instrucionais utilizados. A pesquisa baseou-se em questionários respondidos pelos alunos utilizando-se basicamente da escala de Lickert. Foi adotado o Inventário de Estilos de Aprendizagem baseado no Modelo Experiencial de Aprendizagem de Kolb. Preferencialmente foi utilizada a prova estatística não-paramétrica de Kolmogorov-Smirnov para testar a aderência entre as amostras. O trabalho concluiu identificando preferência dos respondentes quanto a eficácia no aprendizado pelos exercícios práticos seguidos das aulas gravadas em vídeo e do livro texto. Constatou-se a importância da estrutura (planejamento e organização) da disciplina no atingimento dos resultados positivos. Ao final o trabalho recomendou aprofundamento da questão de comunicação entre professor, tutores e alunos especialmente quanto à utilização dos 'chats'. ItemEfficient two-sided nonsimilar invariant tests in IV regression with weak instruments(2008) Andrews, Donald W. K.; Moreira, Marcelo J.; Stock, James H.As Nelson and Startz [Nelson, C.R., Startz, R., 1990a. The distribution of the instrumental variable estimator and its t ratio when the instrument is a poor one. Journal of Business 63, S125-S140; Nelson, C.R., Startz, R., 1990b. Some further results on the exact small sample properties of the instrumental variables estimator. Econometrica 58, 967-976] dramatically demonstrated, standard hypothesis tests and confidence intervals in instrumental variables regression are invalid when instruments are weak. Recent work on hypothesis tests for the coefficient on a single included endogenous regressor when instruments may be weak has focused on similar tests. This paper extends that work to nonsimilar tests, of which similar tests are a subset. The power envelope for two-sided invariant (to rotations of the instruments) nonsimilar tests is characterized theoretically, then evaluated numerically for five IVs. The power envelopes for similar and nonsimilar tests differ theoretically, but are found to be very close numerically. The nonsimilar test power envelope is effectively achieved by the Moreira [Moreira, M.J., 2003. A conditional likelihood ratio test for structural models. Econometrica 71, 1027-1048] conditional likelihood ratio test, so that test is effectively uniformly most powerful invariant (UMPI). We also provide a new nonsimilar test, P*, which has χ12 critical values, is asymptotically efficient under strong instruments, involves only elementary functions, and is very nearly UMPI. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ItemO ensino da psicologia no curso de administração: como trabalhar em pequenos grupos favorecendo a relação de equipes(1995) Domingues, IdeliThe author, in her consulting job, has observed that people are not trained in their formation, to operate in interactions. There is great difficulty in applying to the everyday routine the information obtained through training. The grupal processes are not perceived as a whole, and the emphasis relies on results instead of trying to evaluate the ways to reach them. In this way, many courses are offered but not everybody is capable of recognizing the obstacles and resistance inherent to all interactions. Still, there is a strong perception that knowledge prevents distortions, and therefore, the internal processes are not adequately experimented, thus there is little possibility of transforming them, when they cannot be identified, named and then related to the theory. There is a clivage between theory and experimenting. This study is based on these assumptions and tried to create a methodology which would help to link Psychology's lines and group work. ItemEntendendo a necessidade de renovação no processo de ensino e aprendizagem(Fundação Getulio Vargas/Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo, 2010-06-01) Maia, Marta de Campos ItemEstrutura de organização e comportamento de aprendizagem(Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo, 1975-04-01) Reis, Dayr Américo dos