Navegando por Assunto "Mulheres"
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ItemA felicidade das mulheres e do campo(FGV Social, 2019-04-11) Neri, MarceloDe acordo com pesquisas, as mulheres são mais felizes do que os homens e as pessoas que vivem no interior são mais satisfeitas do que os moradores das grandes cidades. As mulheres souberam lidar melhor com a instabilidade do país e conseguiram aumentar a renda. Já as pessoas do campo migraram devido ao desemprego e aumento da violência. Por que houve essa mudança nos níveis de felicidade durante a crise? Marcelo Neri, diretor do FGV Social, analisa o novo cenário do ranking. ItemGender in international economic development projects: how is gender being institutionalized in the Inter-American Development Bank?(2014-09-19) Hennessey, Flavia LangeO Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, o Banco Mundial, e outras organizações financiam iniciativas para acelerar o desenvolvimento da região da América Latina e Caribe. Antes do final da década de 80, vários projetos e políticas dessas instituições careciam de considerações ligadas à gênero e foram criticadas por essa falta (Flora, 1998). Em 1987, o BID publicou um documento sobre uma nova política operacional sobre mulheres e desenvolvimento e vem desde então buscando institucionalizar gênero e criar indicadores para medir os impactos relacionados à gênero em seus projetos. O objetivo dessa dissertação é explorar o tema de gênero no contexto do desenvolvimento internacional através de uma análise de como o Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento inclui gênero em suas operações. Após uma revisão literária sobre a importância de gênero e de bancos de desenvolvimento, essa dissertação irá analisar de que maneira gênero é incluído nas discussões dos projetos do Banco à nível institucional. A pesquisa será feita através de documentação disponível para o público geral, documentos internos e entrevistas em vídeo com pessoal do BID. Após uma análise dos dados coletados, recomendações para ações futuras serão dadas. ItemA 'materialização' da beleza: campo semântico e consumo(2013) Luz, Margareth da; Mezabarba, Solange RivaThe perception of beauty, since long time, has gone beyond the notions of proporcion in the bodies. There is a vast semantic field that pass by the idea of beauty for women. With this job we aimed to comprehend the concept of beauty among a brazilian group of women, and, at the end, we checked how the comsumption dynamics became an allied practice to realize an ideal of beauty. ItemMicrocrédito e empoderamento de mulheres de baixa renda: uma análise do projeto “Elas”(2016-04-11) Cezar, Irina FrareMicrocredit has been a tool to combat poverty around the world in recent decades. Increased access to credit to those who cannot appeal to the traditional financial system has constituted a democratic way of promoting social inclusion through the generation of jobs and income. The loans made have shown beneficial effects on low-income communities, particularly in relation to women, by triggering an empowerment process with effects on their ability to earn income, improve their self-esteem and increase their participation in decision-making spaces. In Brazil, women are the majority of microcredit borrowers, and the justification for it, goes through the difficulties in the formal market, the need to supplement the family income, the desire for greater emancipation front of the companions and the search for self-realization in a small enterprise. In Fortaleza (CE), Banco Palmas created a gender empowerment project, focused on beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família, from the microcredit. This work aimed to analyze the dimensions of the process of empowerment achieved by women participating in this project, entitled project 'ELAS'. The initial hypothesis was that the new economically productive capacity of respondents would change their reality, putting them at a new level before themselves and their families, providing greater autonomy in their decisions and financial independence before their husbands, besides the increase of their welfare. In this case, microcredit would serve as a promoter of women's individual empowerment – hypothesis demonstrated in this study. However, it was noted that there has not been a breach of gender relations within the families, especially apparent factor for non-redistribution of household tasks, with restrictive impact on social empowerment of women through non-participation in instances of collective decision-making. ItemMicrocrédito e empoderamento de mulheres: o caso do Banco Popular Crédito Solidário(2016-03-18) Moreira, Nathalia CarvalhoMany studies indicates the importance of microfinance in reducing poverty and social inequality, including women's empowerment. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the empowerment of women of a microfinance institution – the Banco do Povo Crédito Solidário (BPCS) in Santo André (SP). It was classified as a qualitative, descriptive and type grounded theory and case study. They were conducted 10 visits to entrepreneurs and two focus groups with solidarity groups of the institution. We also interviewed managers and loan officers. Content analysis was performed using the theoretical framework of economic, social and individual empowerment. The main results show the increasing of economic empowerment in the context of entrepreneurship learning, knowledge in microfinance and its own business. For these reasons, we also realize the increased social interaction with the community. We also realize the emancipation of women, many of them have economic emancipation of their husbands and some of them are able to contribute financially to the household, thus improving the relationship with their partner. Finally, this study confirms the importance of microfinance, the positive effect on empowerment for poverty reduction and the promotion of gender equity. The main conclusion was observed to improve the level of education, empowerment, autonomy and self-understanding of their ability and that they are able to manage their own business and lives; thus, as a theoretical contribution was prepared the conceptual map of self-sustaining empowerment. ItemMulher, identidade e auto-estima: elementos teóricos para uma reflexão critica(1984-04-30) Fernandes, Gisele da SilvaThis dissertation's principal objective is to discuss some theoretical questions dealing with the assumption that feminine social myths contribute to the development of woman's identity and self-esteem. More specifically we envisage a time in the evolution of woman's life in which she feels herself restricted to a domestic universe, having lost those feminine functions fabricated by the social imaginary. In some cases, this situation characterizes a moment of crisis, wherein the woman frequently loses the perspective of a future, there by influencing her way of 'being' and 'acting' in the world, and consequently feeling a threat to her identity and self-esteem. In order to understand better the world of a woman, we have included a chapter dealing with several different scientific contributions (biological, sociological, anthropological, historical and psychological) since an interdisciplinary approach to the theme we propose to study is deemed indispensable. Our main conclusion, derived from our theoretical investigation, is that a study directed to those aspects which we have envisaged is both important and relevant, specifically in a historical moment of violent social changes. Therefore, we propose an empirical research in order ta brooden our perspective and ta contribute to the psychalagist's practice in this area. ItemOs obstáculos impostos às mulheres nas visitas aos presos como forma de injustiça de gênero no Tribunal do Distrito Federal(Revista Brasileira de Ciências Criminais, 2018-08-01) Sganzerla, Rogério Barros; Mohallem, Michael Freitas; Silva, Lucas Daniel Germano daO objetivo deste artigo é avaliar se as respostas oferecidas pelo Poder Judiciário no âmbito do Distrito Federal,no tema da visitação, enfrentam os problemas relacionados aos temas de gênero no sistema prisional ou se os agravam. A pesquisa verificou que 139 decisões, requeridas por 151 pessoas, tiveram 73% de improcedência. Dentro de três classificações utilizadas em relação a parentesco com os presos, verificou-se que 46 das 50 mulheres (92%) respondiam, estavam cumprindo ou já tinham cumprido algum tipo de crime, sendo a grande maioria por tráfico de drogas. A principal crítica a este comportamento é que o Estado, na figura dos magistrados e magistradas do Tribunal do Distrito Federal e Territórios, perpetua a violência de gênero de forma simbólica através da linguagem e de métodos de interpretação da legislação ordinária e infra legal. Essa violência institucional não viabiliza uma justiça de gênero ao conservar valores e hierarquias que impedem o acesso às mulheres ao espaço público, ainda que sob a forma de visitação em estabelecimentos prisionais. ItemThe queen bee: A myth? The effect of top-level female leadership on subordinate females(Elsevier Inc., 2018) Arvate, Paulo Roberto; Galilea, Gisele Walczak; Todescat, IsabelaWe investigate the effect of female leadership on gender differences in public and private organizations. Female leadership was constructed using a quasi-experiment involving mayoral elections, and our research used a sample of 8.3 million organizations distributed over 5600 Brazilian municipalities. Our main results show that when municipalities in which a woman was elected leader (treatment group) are compared with municipalities in which a male was elected leader (control group) there was an increase in the number of top and middle managers in public organizations. Two aspects contribute to the results: time and command/role model. The time effect is important because our results are obtained with reelected women – in their second term – and the command/role model (the queen bee phenomenon is either small, or non-existent) is important because of the institutional characteristics of public organizations: female leaders (mayor) have much asymmetrical power and decision-making discretion, i.e., she chooses the top managers. These top managers then choose middle managers influenced by female leadership (a role model). We obtained no results for private organizations. Our work contributes to the literature on leadership by addressing some specific issues: an empirical investigation with a causal effect between the variables (regression-discontinuity design – a non-parametric estimation), the importance of role models, and how the observed effects are time-dependent. Insofar as public organizations are concerned, the evidence from our large-scale study suggests that the queen bee phenomenon may be a myth; instead, of keeping subordinate women at bay, our results show that women leaders who are afforded much managerial discretion behave in a benevolent manner toward subordinate women. The term “Regal Leader” instead of “Queen Bee” is thus a more appropriate characterization of women in top positions of power. ItemReforma tributária e desigualdade de gênero(FGV Direito SP, 2023-06-28) Piscitelli, Tathiane dos Santos; Castilhos, Núbia Nette Alves Oliveira de; Câmara, Andalessia Lana BorgesO presente documento apresenta o resultado das discussões ocorridas no âmbito do grupo de pesquisa Tributação e Gênero, do Núcleo de Direito Tributário do Mestrado Profissional da Escola de Direito de São Paulo da Fundação Getulio Vargas, e não reflete a posição institucional da Procuradoria Geral da Fazenda Nacional. Os debates foram realizados ao longo de 2020 e consideraram os dados e propostas legislativas existentes naquele momento histórico. ItemWhen women emerge as leaders: effects of extraversion and gender composition in groups(Elsevier Science Inc, 2016-06) Lemoine, G. James; Aggarwal, Ishani; Steed, Laurens BujoldFocusing on the gender of emergent leaders in initially leaderless groups, we explore contextual factors that may influence when women are likely to emerge as leaders. We take a multilevel perspective to understand and unpack the complex interplay between individual gender, group gender composition, and group personality composition. Drawing from perspectives such as social role theory and the social identity model of leadership, we theorize as to when women are most likely to emerge as leaders, even in groups composed predominantly of men. Results from two studies indicated that individual level gender does not interact with group gender composition to predict leadership emergence, suggesting that groups with more men do not disproportionally choose men as leaders, and groups with more women similarly do not tend to have women emerge as leaders. However, a three-way interaction consistently appeared in our studies when group-level extraversion was added to individual and group gender, in a pattern suggesting that group extraversion alters leader emergence patterns in groups with more men. Our findings demonstrate that women become more likely to emerge as leaders when their groups are both high in extraversion, and composed of more men than women. Implications for practice and future research directions are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc. ItemWhere are the women CEO's?: a study of the telecommunications industry in the U.S. & Finland(2016-12-19) Rojas Levi, ElizabethAs women make wide strides in labor participation in both, business and politics, a staggering reality is that the progress is rather minimal at the top of decision-making. In Nordic nations, which rank among the top five in the world for gender equality, women fare far worse than their American counterparts in the upper echelons of large corporations. For the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) position, the number one leadership and decision-making role in a company, women held 4.6% of CEO positions in S&P 500 companies in the US, while they held zero positions in large cap companies in Finland (Catalyst, 2015). The objective of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of how women are disproportionally represented at the top decision-making position, the CEO post, in corporations. It also seeks to investigate the key factors that impact women’s career pathway to the CEO position in corporations and recommendations from participants to change the course. This study uses an exploratory framework employing a case study of the telecommunications industry, and compares the experiences of a Nordic country, Finland, with the United States, with an eye on the so-called Nordic Mystery (The Economist, 2014). Data was collected by conducting interviews with 11 participants in both countries, including CEOs and chief government decision-makers in the industry and leading experts in academia, business and international executive-search firms. This exploratory study poses limitations: a small number of participants in the sample, a reduced geographical context, short period of time for data collection, and findings applicable solely to the largest publicly traded firms. Contrary to most quantitative studies, however, this qualitative approach of interviewing current top decision-makers deepens the understanding of this phenomenon and serves as a starting point for future research of women CEOs.