Ensaios sobre o papel da taxa de câmbio no desenvolvimento
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This work consists of three parts. The first chapter assesses the possibility of “savings displacement”. According to Bresser-Pereira and Nakano (2003), there is in emerging economies a high rate of substitution of foreign for domestic savings generated by the process of inflow of foreign financial flows. This is happens because, given the propensity for consumption in emerging countries, most of the deficit in current account turns into consumption of imported goods; the share of the flow spent on investment is small. The existence of savings displacement makes growing with foreign savings a risky strategy. Given this hypothesis, the chapter evaluates theoretically and empirically the existence of substitution of foreign for domestic savings in developing countries and also the role of overvaluation of the real exchange rate (RER) in this process. We used a dynamic panel GMM-System for a sample of 48 middle income countries covering the time span of 1970-2004. The results show a process of substitution of foreign for domestic savings significant and negative effects on domestic savings resulting from the interaction of overvaluation of the exchange and foreign inflows. The second chapter analyzes the effects of RER overvaluations on the value added by economy sectors for developing countries covering the period 1970-2004. The overvaluation process, once undermines the competitiveness of domestically manufacturing industries may reduce the ability of developing countries to stimulate dynamic sectors of the productive structure. The long run outcome can led to adverse effects upon growth and sustainable development. The theoretical motivation of this work is the Kaldorian view of development. The chapter proceeds by testing tests the relationship between the overvaluation of the RER on the added value of the productive sectors of primary goods and manufacturing as product share for the period 1970 to 2004, using a sample of 45 emerging countries. The results show that episodes of overvaluation are correlated with a lower share of manufacturing value-added production on the economies´ product significantly. The probable reason of this result is that an exchange overvaluation not only makes the domestic industrial goods less competitive, but also favors the domestic importats of this commodity from other countries; in this scenario, manufacturing could no longer be produced or improved within the country. Finally, the third chapter evaluates the effects of external debt on growth from a different point of view underlined by the 'debt overhang' literature. Here we argues that the strategy of growth with foreign savings is the main reason for the increasing debt that in the long term that is responsible for harming the growth performance of developing countries since generates balance of payments crises. To assess this dynamic was empirically estimated growth equation with a dynamic panel System GMM. The data used 45 middle-income countries, covering the period 1970-2004. The overall conclusion of the empirical exercises attests a nonlinear influence of external debt on growth of selected countries in the sample: in the long term, continuous indebtedness reduces growth performance of countries. It can be pointed that one probable reason why foreign savings can lead to higher external debt problems is its significant interaction with the influx of external resources required to rollover debt, the result on the growth performance is negative and significant. Concluding the thesis, an appendix details the procedures for estimating panel cointegration used to derive indexes of RER overvaluation.