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    Categorias no pensamento humano: conceitos ou protótipos?
    (1985-11-08) Nascimento, Maria Cristina Ferreira do
    Este trabalho representa urna tentativa de recolocar, à luz das mais recentes contribuições teóricas e verificações empíricas, o terna da obtenção de conceitos e de sua atual alternativa, expressa através da teoria dos protótipos. Para a consecução de tal objetivo, fez-se inicialmente urna revisão dos principais aspectos que caracterizam a abordagem clássica na obtenção de conceitos. Nessa abordagem, define-se um conceito por um pequeno conjunto de propriedades comuns a todos os seus exemplares, que são necessárias e suficientes para este fim. A análise dos resultados obtidos confirmou plenamente a hipótese em questão, indicando que a estrutura interna das categorias de ambientes possuía uma realidade psicológica e que tal estrutura afetava o processamento cognitivo destas categorias. As evidências reunidas nos três estudos possibilitaram uma confirmação e extensão de algumas das formulações teóricas subjacentes ã abordagem de protótipos na formação de categorias e possibilitaram o desenvolvimento de sugestões úteis ã Psicologia Ambiental, ã Psicologia Instrucional e ã elaboração de modelos sobre o processo de for mação de categorias.
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    Televisão, frustração e agressão: um estudo de caso
    (1984-03) Macedo, Pureza Vauthier de
    The objective of the following research was to study the effects of frustration as an instigator of aggression in children behavior. Two groups of children were selected, one experimental group and other control group, in two teaching institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The sample of children under study varied between five to seven years of age. Two films were projected: to the experimental group, one action-adventure film during which frustration was manipulated, and the other - group of control - a neutral film about animal life. The frustration manipulation was introduced by three interruption during the film These interruption were intented to be similar to commercials programs for children. The instruments used were questionnaries answered by teachers and by the children: these questionaries were handled by research assistants. The behavior of the children was video-taped,during the recreation session. The date analyses showed a greater aggression in the group under stimulus of an action-adveture film under frustration. Teoretical considerations were made to the hypothesis whether aggressive behavior is hereditary (instinctive) or conditioned by the environement. It is proposed that behavior does not come from genetical equipement; where the decisions compete to the 'great parliament of the. instincts,' neither comes from social conditioning. The position assumed by the Yale group is criticized while it explains the behavior as an answered to the environement. The influence of cognitive processis in human behavior is assumed. A critique to infantile program of TV is whether it enlarges and diffuses the report of violent stories, or whether these stories are what is educationaly better and whether it is what the infantile audience desires. The infantile programs of TV are in its majority imported from a different culture, strange to our national reality.
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    Um estudo da interação mãe-bebe segundo uma visão psicanalítica: a interferência dos canais sensoriais na construção das relações objetais
    (1986-11-17) Goldenberg, Gita Wladimirski
    The results achieved l e d us to have a larger understanding not only of the subject s we studied but also of the most important methodological rules which should guide clinical researches such as this one. Keeping up with the works published in the two latest de cades - such as those written by T. B. Brazelton, Klaus,kennel, C. Bertrand , M. Soulé - the results of our research corroborate the evidence of the baby 's active participation in the process of interaction with mother since his birth. We could also verify the high de gree of mutuality and deriving exchanges which produce the inconscious dialogue between the another and her new born baby. Finally our investigation showed that, above any kind of deficiency in the channels or in the material means of communication, it is language which organizes and build up the human being’s personality.
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    O processo de humanização: as bases constitutivas da subjetividade
    (1987) Farias, Francisco Ramos de
    Taking in consideration this evolutive dynamics, which reaches its summit with the break produced by the language, an analyses was carried out by contents of the records from case-study. Starting posterior out a longitudinal discription, followed by interpretation, categories related to each dimension of the psyche were obtained. These categories, in the transversal aspect, were taken as a support for the explanations of the passage from a state of biological subject to a state of a subject who speaks. The direction of this analyses was given in the first place by the postulation of those dimensions their corresponding aspects and the effecters related to these aspects responsible for this passage, which starts when the mother points out to the subject the limit between the philogenic nucleus and the social historical transformations. From this delimitation, occurs the assmilation of typically human characteristics before the paternal law finally fixes the limits of 'becoming a human being'. Meanwhile, occurrances related to those mentioned dimensions can be observed. Concerning the contents kept out of the symbolization field and excluded from the imaginary matrix, the real is characterized by its specific mechanism: foreclosure. The drive remains with its unthinkable and unnamed character. As for actions resulting from the primal repression, they contribute for the formation of signs not liable to the symbolized, which as a facet of the imaginary, associate with information from the philogenic nucleus relative to the originary fantasies, which are considered as another facet of this dimension. As for the symbolic, the signification founds the human condition resulting from repression proper. In this way, the humanization as explained by the concept of repression in the Freudian metapsychology does not accounts only all aspects concerning the 'human'; since it accounts only for what is imagined as a phantasm or what os symbolically presented. For this, the use of the concept of foreclusure in the Lacanian perspective is justified by the fact that it gives a more complete view of this dynamics. Therefore, those elements not liable to symbolization, as well as those of the drive reality, which are not present in the phantasm context, but which acting as a background, enable the articulation of the symbolic and imaginary contents to make socialization possible. At last, socialization is a process originated in the symbolic that settles in the imaginary, taken as a support. For this purpose, the real and its marginal affect enable the return to the symbolic. From then on, the use of the cultural elements brought about by phantasmagoric activity, can be observed.
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    Psicologia e subjetividade
    (1982-12-28) Garcia-Roza, Luiz Alfredo
    Este trabalho se propõe como uma análise histórica da questão da subjetividade tal como ela foi pensada desde sua emergência com Descartes, até Freud. Não se trata propriamente da história de um conceito, mas de uma abordagem histórica a um espaço mais amplo de questões que tem como referencial o sujeito e a subjetividade. O texto está dividido em três partes. Na Parte I, é analisada a emergência da subjetividade como objeto do saber e o esforço do racionalismo para identificá-la com a razão. A Parte 11, é dedicada à abordagem empirista e seus desdobramentos psicológicos. A Parte III é toda ela ocupada pela questão da clivagem da subjetividade operada pela teoria psicanalítica. O objetivo mais imediato do trabalho, é o de confrontar as virias concepções da subjetividade considerada como una e identificada com a consciência, ã concepção que nos é oferecida por Freud e que implica numa subjetividade clivada e num descentramento da razão. Face a este objetivo, a divisão do trabalho em suas duas partes iniciais, não se oferece como rigorosa mas visa apenas uma maior comodidade expositiva. O objetivo mais amplo do trabalho é, no entanto a delimitação da questão do platonismo que serve de tessitura ao conjunto dos discursos que compõem o texto, inclusive ao discurso psicanalítico.
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    Anomia e desorganização: estudo psicológico em contexto brasileiro
    (1981-12-15) Sigelmann, Élida
    The widespread ,image of disorganization that has been atributed to the Brazilian society has inspired the empirical, investigation of the incidence of psychosocial dimensions, associated to that characteristic, on a, group of persons beginning to our social community. In order to reach this aim cultural' behaviors have been identified so that they could be distinguished from those generated by the 'world values crisis.
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    Fundamentos da psicologia social
    (1984-01-18) Kruger, Helmuth Ricardo
    O tema central deste estudo é o dos fundamentos da Psicologia Social. Neste sentido, foram examinados pressupostos ontológicos, epistemológicos, lógicos e axiológicos mas, também, as bases conceituais, teóricas e metodológicas deste setor da Psicologia contemporânea. A justificar este empreendimento, encontram-se duas suposições: a de que qualquer ciência é inexoravelmente construída sobre postulados metafísicos e lógicos, e a de que a falta de clareza em relação a estes impede a instalação de programas de pesquisa consequentes. Os objetivos colimados na consecução deste trabalho podem ficar assim discriminados: caracterização da Psicologia social; análise de suas bases filosóficas e lógicas; especificação da origem e classificação dos conceitos psicossociológicos; avaliação do estágio de teorização atingido na Psicologia Social; e discussão de aspectos epistemológicos da metodologia de pesquisa psicossociológica. Este texto pode ser classificado como filosófico. E pode sê-lo em virtude da natureza dos problemas submetidos à investigação e da metodologia empregada para este fim. São três as conclusões mais relevantes: em primeiro lugar, a de que em todas as ciências sociais e humanas, por subsistirem diversos pressupostos antropológicos ou imagens do Homem, cabe fomentar o pluralismo teórico; a de que nas disciplinas-psicológicas, a orientação nomotética - uma dentre várias alternativas doutrinárias existentes - deve continuar a ser desenvolvida; e, finalmente, a de que a Psicologia Social insere-se como elemento importante no processo de autoconsciência do Homem.
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    Duas vertentes da ontogênese da linguagem no desenvolvimento cognitivo
    (1987-12-16) Moura, Maria Lucia Seidl de
    This study brings a contribution to the discussion of the language -cognition relation, examining a restricted aspect of the problem: the hypothesis of a cognitive basis for language acquisition. The Piagetian theoretical model is analysed in its explanation of the ontogenesis of language as a result of sensorimotor intelligence constructions. Some of its aspects are questioned, the possibility of formulation of verifiable hypothesis based on it is examined and the literature is reviewed in search of relevant evidence. The main problem observed is a conception of language limited to a performance criterion. Only the beginning of speech is considered in almost all studies. A new theoretical model is proposed, still constructivist, including the discussion of comprehension in language acquisition. The central hypothesis formulated is that before stage VI it is possible to deal with the linguistic signo To verify it, a longitudinal and a transversal study of the linguistic and cognitive development of 45 children, 8 to 18 months were conducted. Comprehension development is compared to production in different aspects. In the age level studied, the first one starts earlier, is faster and leads to a greater vocabulary and more complex stage. There is also evidence that imitation plays different roles in the construction of the two kinds of vocabularies. The beginning of a more generalized and systematical response to language is observed since nine months, when the child is capable of coordination of secondary circular reactions and of mentally reconstructing and object by a visible fraction of it. It is argued that this answer already includes sign decoding and differentiation significant-significate, as a preliminary stage of a process which continues with concept formation. Data do not allow the identification of cognitive pre-requisites of language acquisition. Nevertheless, two aspects can be viewed as correlates of the beginning of the process of sharing linguistic signs: the child's possibility of understanding that he has a name and of responding to it and a primitive intentionality. Results support the hypotheses formulated and suggest that the final constructions of the sensori-motor period are not necessary conditions of language acquisition and that this process is not a direct consequence of cognitive development. Further studies are needed to verify the implications of the present conclusions, without the limitations of this study.
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    A crise do casamento contemporâneo: um estudo psicossocial
    (1988-09-23) Jablonski, Bernardo
    The present nuclear urban familyand the institution of marriage are going through a difficult period, Deep socioeconomic changes brought contemporary marriage to a state of crisis hig.hlighted by a growing number of divorces that nowadays tends to reach 50% of married couples shortly after the wedding. The first part of our study depicts the main factors that seem to account for this situation. Thus, declining religiousness, modernization and industrialization, family shortening, overevaluation of love as sole basis of marriage and universal remedy, longer life expectancy, sexual revolution, a life style that brings individualism to the fore, women's liberation movement, lower social integration within the community, and a growing degree of isolationism would be the main causes of the crisis and of the state we call – because of the isolation thereby caused - the 'familha'. To test a number of hypotheses to divorce-proneness and to compare researches' opinions with those of common people, we show in the second part the results of a research made with four hundred middle-class subjects divided in four conditions: single youths, married7 divorced and aging married people (half male, half female). Using specifically prepared questionnaires, we compared personal evaluations according to marital status, age and sex in the four groups. Social psychological principles were also applied to our study. Thus, in the research we included questions based on (a) Jones and Nisbett's hypotheses on divergent perspectives on causal atribution by actors and observers, (b) perception of inequities in man/woman relationships and their consequences (topics on distributive justice), and (c) the division of power in marriages. In the last section the main hypotheses that were confirmed are summarized and related to the causes depicted at the beginning: the overevaluation of love, mainly among young people, the growing secularization and its consequences, the women's movement, the prevailing individualistic mood and the great number of extramarital relationships, are some of the principal factors contributing to the breakup of marriages. We also established, in addition to men's and women's distinct views of marriages, the connection between the perception of inequities and dissatisfaction in marriages, the existence of differing perspectives on causal atribution by actors and observers, and a more egualitarian power division among young couples.
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    Não somos diferentes das outras pessoas': a vida cotidiana de mulheres com deficiência mental contada por elas mesmas
    (1988-08-04) Glat, Rosana
    The purpose of this research was investigate the daily life of women who had been labeled mentally handicanped, through their personal biographical reports. In the interviews, the subjects described their routine at home and at the institution, talked about their families, relationships, difficulties in social integration, and also about their physical and learning problems. It became clear in the discourse of this group that a dichotomy existed between the 'inside' world, which included the protective spaces of home and the instituition and the threatening and violent 'outside' world, represented by street. Their social relations were restricted to the people of the 'inside' world: the family, the professionals and the , friends of the instituion, and many subjects mentioned that they feel discriminated against by the people from 'the outside'. Although many women expressed the desire to be in dependent (work 'outside', go out alone, etc), in practice they tend to maintain an extreme degree of dependence on the family. Even though two thirds of the subjects were over 20 years old, they did not seem to have any concrete perspective of living on their own, getting married, or raising their own family. One of the supositions of this study was that the stigma of mental deficiency would be the central theme of the life histories. However, more than. half of the women did not touch on this subject during the interviews, and very few called themselves handicapped. It was sU9gested that the effects of the stigma may have been underestimated in this group due to family and institution overprotection on one hand, and avoidance of the 'outside' world (where this condition would be more openly revealed) on the other. This way, in their daily practice the majority of these women have few opportunities to experience the situation of marginalization. Mental deficiency was analysed as a socially constructed phenomenon, and it is believed that these people function at a much lower level of independence than their organic condition demand , because they have been reinforced for playing the social role of the handicapped. In spite of their common characteristics, each life history proved to be original and unique, showing the fallacy of considering people with mental handicap as a homogeneous and well defined group. Furthermore, except for family dependence, lack of integrated and independent: participation in the community, and restricted love and sexual relationships, these women's lives are not qualitatively different from those of the rest of the population.
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    O behaviorismo radical de B. F. Skinner e sua aplicabilidade socialmente relevante
    (1985-11-28) Sá, Celso Pereira de
    The objective of this work is to evaluate the capacity of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to find practical aplications which are endowed with effective social and human relevance; this relevance is defined by the possibility of such applications to be impressed by a politically progressive and democratic character. The evaluation is developed through two academic proceedings which are distinct, but interrelated a discursive argumentation based on a proper bibliographical research is complemented by an empiric exploratory field study. The discursive critical analysis of radical behaviorism is firstly carried out on a historical and academic perspective which is mainly and, continuously referred to B. F. Skinner - the individual agent who is basically responsible by the gradual process of constitution of this scientific system. The second part presents a more impersonal discussion of radical behaviorism. The theoretical background of this discussion brings together philosophy of science and human social relations, as well as ethics that is implicated in the practical interventions in such relations. An exploratory study is introduced it consists on a judgement of the potential utility of a popular political education instrument, which was previously elaborated following the basic radical behaviorist principles and their psychosocial extensions. This instrument is directed to adults of both sexes, social-economically underprivileged, and having taken all or most of all eight grades of elementary school. An evaluation of this Cartitha de Contracontolre social is obtained by using semi-structured interviews and a short objective questionnaire, which are applied to fourteen informers. These informers are qualified by their leadership and/or militancy in neighbourhood and favelas residents associations, workers trade unions, religious community centers autonomous assistance agencies, and employees associations in work organizations. The results of their evaluation are, in general, very favorable. The initiative is considered to be extremely serious and responsible, and the contents of the Cartilha are viewed as very compatible with the objectives of these popular, movements, as well as very useful to endow their activities with a greater social efficacy. However, a generalized restriction is showed in what it concerns the possibility of the population to which the Cartilha is directed to understand the text; this indicates the necessity of a reformulation of the text for future projects of carrying on with this trend of research. It is finally concluded that this work is able to contribute; if divulged enough, to the promotion of a greater interest for Skinnerian behaviorism in the academical environment of Rio de Janeiro, as well as to the production of a more efficacious exercise of countercontrol in regard to the current aversive and/or exploratory practices of social control.
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    O desenho da família como técnica de investigação psicológica: influências da idade, sexo, e ordem de nascimento
    (1985-05-06) Ortega, Antonio Carlos
    This study is an investigation of the Family Drawing as a technique of psychological assessment with the purpose to assess its sensibility under the influence of age, sex and birth order. The sample was composed of 300 children, ages 7 to 9, males and females, belonging to families with two children and from the same socio-economic level. The Family Drawing technique was administered individually, with the instruction suggested by Porot CJ952): 'Draw your Family'. The drawings were analysed with the aid of a method developed for this study and based on the proposal of several authors. The method contained 52 characteristics in three levels: (a) general characteristics of the drawing, (b) level of the formal structures and Cc) content level. The results, analysed by means of the chi-square test ,revealed the sensibility of the technique. The majority of its characteristics were significantly associated ·with the variables. It was also shown that while the age influence was stronger in relationship to the general characteristics of the drawing and to the level of formal structures (which were predominantly explained in developmental and cognitive terms), the influences of sex and birth order were related to the characteristics of the level of formal structures and to content level (which were predominantly interpreted in projective and affective terms): It was further seen that the analysis of the characteristics significantly related to sex of the subject, allowed the statement and acceptance of a hypothesis about the sexual identification of the subjects with the parental figures (father and mother). Furthermore, analysis of the characteristics influenced by birth order allowed the formulation and acceptance of a hypothesis about sibling rivalry on the part of both the first born and the youngest. In conclusion, the fact that the majority of the authors consider the Family Drawing just a projective technique was questionned. Care in its interpretation was recommended. Finally, the investigation of some aspects related to birth order was suggested.
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    Da psicogênese a sociogênese: por uma interação radical no modelo dialético de Jean Piaget
    (1988-01-05) Arendt, Ronald João Jacques
    The core idea of this thesis 15 that the dialectical interaction between the individual and the environment, which constitutes the basis of the piagetian theoretical model, has to be necessarly a radical interaction. Following an observation of Piaget that, ln the genetic psychology and episthemology the knowlege relation has been studied prioritarly from the subject's and not the object's point of view, this thesis tries to develop the posslbl11ties openned by this exploration, when one considers the expression 'environment' ln its more abrangent conception. Including not only physical but a1so social objects. Dlscussing the sociological critic of the piagetian model, which criticises it for failing to include in it the social dimension, this thesis will / defend the hypothesis that no omission has been made: the social dimension would be inserted in the very interaction concept. With antropological arguments about the space discontinuity, series of generalizations are made which, finally, suggest an enrichment of the piagetian theory understood from the object's point of view. The propositions of this new model give the basis for its application to the solut1on of social and psycholog1cal cognitive problems: a crit1cal discussion is made of the debate between the researchers of the São Paulo University and the Pernambuco Federal University, concerning the intelligence of the brazilian margina child; the analisys of this debate permits to bring the cognitive construction to an antropological and political reference. The thesis ends indicating the correlation of psychogenesis and sociogenesis, compreended from the point of view developed, with the community psychology and the institutional analisys.
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    Lateralização cerebral de funções e sua implicação para a cognição humana: do paradigma do duplo sistema funcional de processamento a um enfoque de sistema complexo
    (1989-08-20) Oliveira, Maniúsia Mota de
    Este trabalho examina a lateralização cerebral de funções e sua implicação para a cognição humana ao nível da intersecção entre a neuropsicologia clinica e a psicologia cognitiva de base informacional. A primeira parte do trabalho e dedicada a descrição e análise critica da conformação contemporânea desta área de investigação neuropsicológica, com a ênfase posta na metateoria e teorias predominantes, a par do sistema conceitual utilizado nas atividades de pesquisa desenvolvidas na área. Inicialmente, a abordagem neuropsicológica do problema da lateralização cerebral examinada no que concerne às suas articulações com os métodos e técnicas que se mostraram mais importantes para a configuração atual desta área de investigação, sob um enfoque histórico. Em continuidade, a análise dirigida às questões mais fundamentais nas quais se tem desdobrado o problema da assimetria funcional inter-hemisférica, representadas pelas especializações funcionais dos hemisférios cerebrais, pela atividade conjunta dos hemisférios e pelas relações entre diferenças individuais na lateralização cerebral e desempenho cognitivo. Neste contexto são sublinhadas as dificuldades e inconsistências relacionadas à restritividade do enfoque prevalente, avaliado como expressão de uma concepção neuropsicológica excessivamente simplificadora do problema compreendido pelas relações entre o cérebro e a cognição humanos. O trabalho apresenta, em sua segunda parte, uma tentativa de desenvolvimento de um enfoque sistêmico, na direção da complexidade, para o problema da lateralização cerebral de funções. Trata-se de um desenvolvimento que parte de uma descentração da dimensão lateral do sistema nervoso e resulta em uma subsunção deste problema à uma perspectiva mais global concernente à organização cerebral de funções e aos fundamentos para a construção teórica na neuropsicologia. Segue-se um exame das implicações deste enfoque para a questão das relações entre variações inter-individuais na lateralização cerebral de funções e habilidades cognitivas que se direciona para uma minimização do significado que tem sido atribuído a lateralizarão para o funcionamento cerebral e a cognição humanos. O trabalho apresenta, finalmente, um estudo empírico referente às relações entre variações inter-individuais normais de lateralizarão cerebral ,preferência manipulatória e sua história familiar e desempenho cognitivo, onde são comparados os desempenhos de destros com história familiar de sinistralidade negativa e de canhotos com esta história positiva no Teste WAIS. Os resultados obtidos mostram uma inequívoca semelhança nos desempenhos dos dois grupos em todas as escalas do WAIS. Estes resultados são discutidos principalmente no que tange à existência ou não de correspondências diretas entre variações normais nas representações das funções ao longo da dimensão lateral do sistema nervoso, preferência manipulatória e habilidades cognitivas. A conclusão final conforma-se como um sumário integrativo dos principais aspectos das conclusões atingidas no curso do trabalho.
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    Estabilidade emocional, atribuição de causalidade e dissonância cognitiva
    (1984-05-08) Niffinegger, Rogerio
    This study considers the theories of attribution of causality and cognitive dissonance in reference to the psychic need of self-consistency. A review of the main theoretical and empirical aspects of these theories allowed the conclusion that they can be considered mutually compatible and complementary. An experiment was conducted in which the subjects, previously differentiated in two groups, one emotionally stable and the other emotionally unstable, were submitted to an experimental condition highly dissonant with the self-concept (solving seven items of an intelligence test in which five of them were insoluble). As introductory task of the same nature of the experimental one was performed although with soluble items of medium difficulty. The number of correct solutions expected and estimated were measured before and after each task, respectively. After the experimental task each subject was asked to choose a reason that concurred for the estimated result, from an attributional listing. The results indicated no significative difference between the averages of estimated results of the two groups after the experimental task. Although the attributions of causality were significantly different, the emotionally stable one leaning toward internality while the emotionally unstable group tented towards externalization. However, a rather significative difference between the averages of the expected results were identified before the introductory and experimental tasks, the unstable group average being lower than that of the stable group. These results were interpreted as indication of an intensive and precocious dissonant experience among the unstable group subjects at the level of expectancy of results. The reduction of dissonance occured predominantly as an underestimation of the number of correct answers expected in the two tasks proposed. The most comprehensive conclusion from this study put in evidence the great importance of the personal meanings over the perceived stimuli for elicitation of responses. New studies were suggested for a better understanding of this matter.
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    Atribuição de causalidade em presos, amputados e cegos: aceitação e luta contra o infortúnio
    (2012-04-02) Dela Coleta, José Augusto
    This work has the following objectives: (a) to verify the processes of causal and responsibility attribution used by prisoners, blinds and physically handicapped individuals in accounting for the events that lee to their misfortune; (b) to determine the relationship between the attribution processes used by the subjects and their coping responses; (c) to asses the utility of the theories of 'desire for control', 'just world' and 'defensive attribution' in the explanation of the events by the subjects; (d) to determine the influence of self-esteem, belief in a just world, locus of control and religious feeling on the attribution process; .(e) finally, to compare actors and observers insofar as causal attribution to the misfortune events is concerned. The first part consists of a review of the main theoretical contributions to the phenomenon of causal attribution in social psychology as well as of the research work related to it; its length is justified by the inexistence of texts of such nature in Portuguese. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of the responses given to scales and questionnaires by 43 subjects put in jail for having committed homicide or for having assalted to steal property, 40 physically handicapped of upper or lower members, 35 blinds (congenital or acquired), and 138 observers matched in age, socio-economic status and school level to the actors. The results indicated differences in the attributional processes employed by subjects with different types of misfortunes, as well as in the utilization of principles that inspire the three attribution theories considered. Differences are also found when actors are compared with observers. The results further show the relationship between psychological variables measured and causal attribution, as well as the influence of such variables upon the process of coping with the misfortune.
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    Desenvolvimento ontogenético da noção de causalidade
    (1984-01-17) Carneiro, Eliane Gerk Pinto
    This thesis is intended to offer an interpretation for the intersection of Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology in the area of the causality concept development. The current situation of investigation in this field has been critically analysed, in order to encourage new researches as well as the adaptation of teaching and learning methodologies related to empirical knowedge. The text starts with an overview of the philosophical conceptions meant to identify the origins of the different questions that will then he considered by Psychology. The next three chapters present three psychological models for the investigation of causality: the Perceptual Model, the Psychogenetic Model and the Social Model. The empirical evidence obtained in approximately fofty years of research is then assessed in order to evaluate the different directions taken by the principal trends of investigation. The psychogenetic models is finally evaluated in the light of the results obtained in the tests to which its hypotheses were submitted, and further research is suggested so as to integrate the three models that have been presented.
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    Teste Illinois de Habilidades Psicolinguísticas: analise critica do modelo mediacional e de diversos aspectos da validade do instrumento
    (1984-12-12) Bogossian, Maria Alice Dias da Silva
    Este trabalho investiga basicamente a validade do Teste Illinois de Habilidades Psicolinguísticas -ITPA -instrumento de avaliação do desenvolvimento da linguagem infantil. Seus autores, S. Kirk e J.J. McCarthy (1961), utilizam o referencial teórico proposto por C. Osgood (1957), a ele incorporando o modelo derivado da Teoria da Informação, o que permite que, na prática clínica, o ITPA possa ser incluído no processo psicodiagnóstico como instrumento de avaliação dos problemas da comunicação em crianças entre três e dez anos. Os objetivos que conduzem e orientam o trabalho apresentado podem ser definidos em três níveis: 1) O que trata dos constructos e suas interrelaç6es -análise crítica da validade teóricado ITPA; 2) O que avalia sua condição de instrumento diagnóstico do desempenho escolar -sensibilidade discriminante do rendimento acadêmico; 3) O que trata da eficácia da prática psicopedagógica proposta pelo mesmo instrumento. O estudo sobre a validade teórica foi realizado com 931 crianças entre três e dez anos de idade, em processo de escolarização, frequentando creches, jardins de infância ou classes regulares da Rede de Ensino do Primeiro Grau no Município do Rio de Janeiro. Utilizou-se a técnica da Análise Fatorial, complementada por uma abordagem lógica que comprovaram algumas das dimensões propostas pelo referencial teórico de Kirk e McCarthy. Para a validade diagnóstica foram avaliadas 71 crianças com dificuldades no desempenho acadêmico, expressas através de conceitos de insuficiência ou deficiência de rendimento e seus resultados foram comparados com os de um subgrupo, aleatoriamente constituído de crianças que participaram do estudo anterior. Utilizou-se a técnica da Análise Discriminante chegando-se à seguinte conclusão: embora a validade de constructo do IIPA não tenha sido completamente confirmada num nível diagnóstico os resultados permitem identificar, com baixa margem de erro, as crianças que pertencem a um ou outro dos grupos de contraste. Quanto ao terceiro nível, foi feita ampla-revelação bibliográfica sobre investigações efetuadas com este instrumento no Brasil e no Exterior. Visou-se avaliar a eficácia da prática psicopedagógica utilizada quando desenvolvida à luz dos recursos de intervenção que o IIPA propõe. Concluiu-se que as pesquisas, até o presente momento efetuadas, não são suficientes para formar um juízo mais seguro da praxis educativa destinada à reabilitação das crianças com problemas da comunicação - o que constitui impedimento a seu desempenho acadêmico - em função das controvérsias que tais pesquisas apresentam.