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    Brazil and Mexico since the early 1980s
    (Centro Brasileiro de Análise e Planejamento, 2016) Bacha, Edmar Lisboa; Bonelli, Regis
    Brazil's and Mexico's economies collapsed almost simultaneously in the early 1980s. Their respective outputs per worker remained in a state of near stagnation since then. We develop a comparative analysis to try to understand what went wrong. Macroeconomic magnitudes (capital accumulation and technical progress) exhibit more similarities than differences. These appear more starkly when productivity changes are analyzed at disaggregated levels: by regions, sectors of activity, tradability, firm size, and labor-market informality. Our empirical findings are consistent with a view that Brazil's economic failure is associated to excessive protectionism; Mexico's to heightened domestic polarization.
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    A tecnologia da informação a serviço da cultura: o caso do Museu do Futebol do Brasil
    (Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2015) Santarosa, Rosana; Meirelles, Fernando de Souza
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    Analysing users' access logs in Moodle to improve e learning
    (2007) Baruque, Cássia Blondet; Amaral, Marília A.; Barcellos, Alexandre; Freitas, João Carlos da Silva; Longo, Carlos Juliano
    In this work the UFSC (Federal University of Santa Catarina) and the FGV-RJ (Fundação Getúlio Vargas do Rio de Janeiro) jointly propose the use of a data mining tool to support the analysis of trends, students profiles, as well as to estimate or foresee the usability level of courses being offered, via Moodle, in the Education area. The study carried out by UFSC on the Moodle database allowed a deep understanding of its database, thus making it easier for the Moodle community to execute important tasks, such as the maintenance of the Moodle database, its adaptation following an institutional customization, and, also, a data mart project by the FGV-Online Program to make the necessary analysis possible. In the end of this paper, an example on its applicability is presented, using the association rules technique. Once a data mart oriented to the analysis of the system's usability is developed, various analyses with different objectives can be executed using the database. Some may use the method proposed here or others, including different data mining approaches, such as clustering, neural networks etc. As such, a new contribution is given to the Moodle community.
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    Organizational structure and ICT strategies in the Brazilian Justice
    (2010) Andrade, André de Souza Coelho Gonçalves de; Joia, Luiz Antonio
    In this case study, we analyze the influence of the organizational structure in the definition and implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) strategies in the Brazilian Judiciary System. The analysis shows that the existing organizational structure boosts uncoordinated actions, but the National Council of Justice (NCJ) protagonism in the process of coordinating the strategic planning of the Brazilian Judiciary System (and ICT strategic planning) may change this reality, allowing the Brazilian Judiciary System to fully appropriate the benefits of ICT. © 2010 ACM.
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    Towards a framework for corporate e-learning evaluation
    (2007) Baruque, Lucia Blondet; Baruque, Cássia Blondet; Melo, Rubens Nascimento
    The main focus of current researches is on technological and pedagogical aspects of web based learning. However, e-learning is a complex process that incorporates organizational, administrative, instructional, and technological risks. As such, various aspects should be considered for the success of elearning. Although a lot of work has been done regarding the management, planning and implementation of e-learning, there is a lack of benchmarks to determine its success. To this end, we propose the use of an e-Learning Governance Reference Model - eLGORM [1] that goes beyond the technological and pedagogical aspects of e-learning. In this paper we propose applying the governance principles in e-learning, based on a risk-oriented approach. We. briefly present eLGORM's processes and sub-processes and propose control standards to function as a benchmarking reference.
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    The strategic planning and ICT in the Brazilian Justice
    (2009) Andrade, André de Souza Coelho Gonçalves de
    In this case study, we analyze the role of different actors in the process of strategic planning and definition of information and communication technologies (ICT) strategies in the Brazilian Justice. The central role of the National Council of Justice (NCJ) in the process of coordinated strategic planning is highlighted. The technical approach of the NCJ team is then compared with the different constituency groups involved in the process. The end result, consisting of 10 goals for the Judiciary is then analyzed focusing on the different actors and their roles, with special attention given to the ICT strategies which relates to these goals. Copyright 2009 ACM.
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    Brazil: keeping it in the family
    (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2003) Coutinho, Luciano; Rabelo, Flávio Marcílio
    Although recent changes in the legal and institutional framework governing relations between controlling and minority shareholders may help local capital markets develop, major problems persist and serious obstacles to reform remain. Long-term finance is hard to find, existing governance procedures offer shareholders inadequate protection, and the fact that many Brazilian corporations are still often family-owned can militate against efficient management. The legal system is unsatisfactory, supervision inadequate. The best hope may lie in the emergence of pension funds which by their sheer size could fulfil a monitoring role. Problems of corporate governance have repercussions beyond the financial and economic sectors because they reflect deeper problems within Brazilian society. Brazil is a country with strong authoritarian traditions, and inadequate corporate governance laws make it possible to perpetuate authoritarian and concentrated influence over governance structures. There are signs of change but there are also real problems relating to regulation and the risk that the agencies responsible for policing large companies - notably privatised utilities - may come under the influence of the bodies they are supposed to be supervising. ©2003 CIPE and OECD.
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    Pork is policy: Dissipative inclusion at the local level
    (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2018) Bertholini, Frederico; Pereira, Carlos; Rennó Junior, Lúcio Remuzat
    The article investigates the impact of local policies on human development indicators in Brazilian municipalities. This is an attempt to investigate the role of the legislative branch in reducing inequality and poverty through budget amendments, usually seen in derogatory form as pork barrel politics. We assess the effect of pork on municipalities using up-to-date policy evaluation techniques. Brazil is a case of extreme inequality and an active legislative branch in disbursing monies. The data set contains over 60,000 observations from all 5,500+ Brazilian municipalities for over a decade. We use matching and longitudinal data analysis techniques, treating pork as exogenous shocks, mapping how its effect reverberates on social and economic indicators in succeeding years. The results indicate a positive impact of such policies in improving local level development. However, these results are not sustainable over time, thus suggesting inclusion with a dissipative profile.
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    Knowledge inputs, legal institutions and firm structure: Towards a knowledge-based theory of the firm
    (2007) Gorga, Érica; Halberstam, Michael
    Corporate scholars rely on traditional theories of the firm to analyze corporate organization and corporate contracting. Traditional theories of the firm, however, have long neglected the role of knowledge in shaping the internal structure of firms. Current analyses of firm structure that rely on these theories therefore suffer from serious shortcomings. This paper begins to address this gap by analyzing knowledge resources and investigating their influence on internal corporate governance structures. We propose a new typology that explains firm internal governance structure based on the types of knowledge used in the production process. We analyze the interaction of law and knowledge management. We investigate how firms can bind knowledge by means of patents, trade secrets and private contracting, such as covenants not to compete. We propose a principle of efficient knowledge allocation, which holds that organizational structures result from the necessity to maximize the use of knowledge resources. We discuss specific hazards that emerge from transactions with knowledge inputs. We discuss particular applications of the typology. We show how the management of knowledge resources required in mass production, high tech and law firms differentially affects the decisional hierarchies of these firms and also their compensation structure in certain instances. We argue that knowledge resources drove the change in the organizational structure of mass production firms from the U-form to the M-form, affecting decision making rights. We show how the adoption of stock options plans in high tech firms aims at constraining knowledge hazards. Stock options prevent leakage by retaining individual knowledge and discouraging hoarding of knowledge. We argue that the model of profit splitting and the hierarchy between partners and associates in law firms are also explained by the necessity of maximizing the use of knowledge resources. We then examine how the change of knowledge types used in law firms is affecting their organization. Finally, we investigate how certain business transactions like mergers, joint ventures and licensing contracts are shaped by knowledge inputs. We show that knowledge considerations provide a positive explanation for firm structure and a normative view in that the principle of efficient knowledge allocation should be an important concern of policy makers concerned with corporate reform
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    Open government data and the data usage for improvement of public services in the Rio de Janeiro city
    (Association for Computing Machinery, 2014) Matheus, Ricardo; Vaz, José Carlos; Ribeiro, Manuella Maia
    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for information transparency in Brazil is not recent. It is possible to highlight several strategies have emerged to promote transparency of these information. This article aims to fill a gap observed in the literature regarding the use of data and information provided by governments and used by citizens and companies from the comparison with the specialized bibliography. The methodology consists of a single case study, the city of Rio de Janeiro, with review of literature in the field of e-government and open data followed by an exploratory study of the portals open data and open data policy municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore creating a simple visit to portals based on the literature review of the eight principles of open data of the Open Government Data and five stars of Tim Berners-Lee. Finally, based on the work of Zuiderjwik & Janssen (2014) pointing virtuous elements of the use cycle of open data by civil society. This work also increase an element lacking in the literature: strategies of dissemination and encouraging governments to use open data. The results indicate the scarce, but organize data can improve the performance of service delivery of a city.
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    Economists in the Brazilian government: from developmentalist state to neoliberal policies
    (Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2009) Loureiro, Maria Rita Garcia
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    Analysis of the Finite Element Method for the Laplace–Beltrami Equation on Surfaces with Regions of High Curvature Using Graded Meshes
    (Springer New York LLC, 2017) Guzman, Johnny; Madureira, Alexandre L.; Sarkis, Marcus; Walker, Shawn
    We derive error estimates for the piecewise linear finite element approximation of the Laplace–Beltrami operator on a bounded, orientable, (Formula presented.), surface without boundary on general shape regular meshes. As an application, we consider a problem where the domain is split into two regions: one which has relatively high curvature and one that has low curvature. Using a graded mesh we prove error estimates that do not depend on the curvature on the high curvature region. Numerical experiments are provided. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
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    Surfacing scientific and financial data with the Xcel2RDF plug-in
    (2012) Pesce, Marcia Lucas; Breitman, Karin K.; Casanova, Marco Antonio
    Given the astounding amount of data stored in spreadsheets and relational databases, a critical requirement for the evolution of the Semantic Web (SW) is the ability to convert data to SW compatible formats, such as RDF and OWL. The process by which data is transformed into RDF is known as triplification. This paper introduces Xcel2RDF, an MS Excel plug-in to support the triplification of spreadsheets, which minimizes the learning curve, as it is integrated into a widely used spreadsheet software tool. The plug-in is user-friendly, does not depend on the installation of additional software and does not require the user to leave his familiar environment, thereby avoiding problems reported as the major drawbacks of existing spreadsheet to RDF conversion tools. Finally, as a proof of concept, the paper illustrates how to use the tool to triplify statistical data. © 2012 IEEE.
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    On the optimal investment
    (Springer New York LLC, 2016) Fajardo, José Manuel; Corcuera, José Manuel; Pamen, Olivier Menouken
    In 1988 Dybvig introduced the payoff distribution pricing model (PDPM) as an alternative to the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).Under this newparadigm agents preferences depend on the probability distribution of the payoff and for the same distribution agents prefer the payoff that requires less investment. In this context he gave the notion of efficient payoff. Both approaches run parallel to the theory of choice of vonNeumann and Morgenstern [17], known as the Expected Utility Theory and posterior axiomatic alternatives. In this paper we consider the notion of optimal payoff as that maximizing the terminal position for a chosen preference functional and we investigate the relationship between both concepts, optimal and efficient payoffs, as well as the behavior of the efficient payoffs under different market dynamics. We also show that path-dependent options can be efficient in some simple models. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
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    Open innovation and collaborative network in supply chain: the case of open IPTV forum
    (IGI Global, 2011) Sakamoto, Angela Ruriko; Villar, Cristiane Biazzin; Martins, Michele Esteves
    This chapter aims to discuss the use of open innovation and collaborative network as a resource to create value and increase competitiveness in supply chain. A case study of Open IPTV Forum was conducted based on documentary and secondary data. The analysis was based on Amit and Zott (2001) model as well as on Carayannis and Wang (2008) innovation networks and knowledge clusters roles. The results indicate the feasibility of joining simultaneously several different actors of a supply chain to develop a new product/service.
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    The queen bee: A myth? The effect of top-level female leadership on subordinate females
    (Elsevier Inc., 2018) Arvate, Paulo Roberto; Galilea, Gisele Walczak; Todescat, Isabela
    We investigate the effect of female leadership on gender differences in public and private organizations. Female leadership was constructed using a quasi-experiment involving mayoral elections, and our research used a sample of 8.3 million organizations distributed over 5600 Brazilian municipalities. Our main results show that when municipalities in which a woman was elected leader (treatment group) are compared with municipalities in which a male was elected leader (control group) there was an increase in the number of top and middle managers in public organizations. Two aspects contribute to the results: time and command/role model. The time effect is important because our results are obtained with reelected women – in their second term – and the command/role model (the queen bee phenomenon is either small, or non-existent) is important because of the institutional characteristics of public organizations: female leaders (mayor) have much asymmetrical power and decision-making discretion, i.e., she chooses the top managers. These top managers then choose middle managers influenced by female leadership (a role model). We obtained no results for private organizations. Our work contributes to the literature on leadership by addressing some specific issues: an empirical investigation with a causal effect between the variables (regression-discontinuity design – a non-parametric estimation), the importance of role models, and how the observed effects are time-dependent. Insofar as public organizations are concerned, the evidence from our large-scale study suggests that the queen bee phenomenon may be a myth; instead, of keeping subordinate women at bay, our results show that women leaders who are afforded much managerial discretion behave in a benevolent manner toward subordinate women. The term “Regal Leader” instead of “Queen Bee” is thus a more appropriate characterization of women in top positions of power.
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    The role of the board in voluntary disclosure
    (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2018) Bueno, Giovana; Marcon, Rosilene; Silva, André Leonardo Pruner da; Ribeirete, Fabio
    Purpose: Since 2012, the Brazilian Stock Exchange has recommended that listed companies inform them if they have conducted voluntary disclosure. The purpose of this study is to describe the voluntary disclosure by companies listed in the B3 in Brazil and to analyze which characteristics of the board of directors influence this disclosure. Design/methodology/approach: The study involves quantitative research using a sample of 285 companies and 575 reports from 2011 to 2014. A fixed-effects regression model with panel data was used for the analysis. Findings: The results were statistically significant for gender and duality variables, which confirms the theory that the presence of women as members of the board positively influences voluntary disclosure and that chief executive officer and chairman of the board positions have a negative effect. The age and independence of the board variables did not present statistical significance. Research limitations/implications: As a theoretical contribution, the authors aim to complement sustainability, finance and strategy research by using agency theory and measuring the variable of voluntary disclosure and the board, which is rarely studied in this context. Practical implications: As social and empirical contributions, a better understanding of this theme in the context of emerging countries, which is the peculiarities of Brazil with little information transparency and well-known corruption scandals, is likely to aid investors. Increased access to company information can help investors better select their investment portfolios and assist in the choice of their board representatives in companies in which they have participation and voting rights. Originality/value: The fact that Brazil is an emerging country, where the lack of transparency of information and corruption in these environments stand out the importance of studying the subject of voluntary disclosure in this context. All data were collected manually specifically for this research.
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    Lighting and homicides: evaluating the effect of an electrification policy in rural Brazil on violent crime reduction
    (Springer New York LLC, 2017) Arvate, Paulo Roberto; Falsete, Filipe Ortiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de
    Introduction: This study estimates the effects of lighting on homicides in rural areas of developing countries. Methods: We use an IV strategy by exploring the LUZ PARA TODOS or Light for All (LPT) program that was adopted by the federal government to expand electrification to rural areas in Brazilian municipalities in the 2000s as an exogenous source of variations in access to electricity. Results: Our results indicate a significant decrease in homicide rates in municipalities the Northeast region, which is the poorest region of the country and most affected by the policy expansion. We estimate that helping a municipality increase from zero electricity coverage to full coverage reduces homicide rates by 92 per 100,000 inhabitants. This is equivalent to moving a municipality that is at the 99th percentile to the median (zero) of the crime distribution across municipalities. In addition, we perform placebo exercises using sub-samples of predominantly urban municipalities. The results increase our confidence in the IV strategy since our primary results were from areas with a larger percentage of rural population, as should be expected by the policy. Conclusions: This study contributes to the extant literature by investigating the effects of lighting on homicides in a different context, rural areas of a developing country (Brazil). © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
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    Mexico’s decentralization at a crossroads
    (Cambridge University Press, 2006) Diaz-Cayeros, Alberto; González, José Antonio; Rojas, Fernando
    Democratization, decentralization, and development. These three sequential forces have swept the world over the last decade and have redrawn the maps of politics, power, and prosperity. Giugale and Webb (2000)
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    European bank penetration during the first wave of globalisation: Lessons from Brazil and Chile, 1878-1913
    (2006) Briones, Ignacio; Villela, André
    Although the macroeconomics of Latin America during the first wave of globalisation has been largely documented, key microeconomic aspects remain insufficiently studied. This is the case for the process of the foreign bank penetration driven by British and German banks. The article analyses the historical experiences of Chile and Brazil with foreign banks between 1878 and 1913. Based on newly available bank balance sheet data for each country, we searched for evidence of differences in the financial behaviour between local and foreign (British and German) banks as well as possible competition effects induced by foreign entry. In line with the results of the vast literature on the present wave of foreign bank entry into developing countries, we find that, on the whole, foreign and domestic banks behaved differently and that the impacts of British and German bank penetration in Brazil and Chile tended to be positive.