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ItemArtificial intelligence: how can Gen-AI tools support the current business models of the firms and add value?(2023-11) Scappaticci, Chiara SilveiraAmid the digitalization era, this thesis explores the transformational impact of Generative Artificial Intelligence (Gen-AI) on business models to support firms in creating a cohesive digital strategy utilizing Gen-AI solutions by answering the research question: how can Gen-AI tools support the current business models of the firms and add value? The study starts by defining digital transformation and its significance. Then, it explores AI’s historical evolution and its role in driving digital transformation. Finally, the thesis also elaborates on Gen-AI, emphasizing its tools, current business applications, and potential to drive digital transformation in organizations in the upcoming years. Moreover, by interviewing industry experts to explore existing business strategies and utilizing the Business Model Canvas framework, the thesis identifies areas within firms that Gen-AI can impact. The interviews provided valuable insights into various business strategies, revealing how the areas can be impacted by Gen-AI and the potential tools that firms can adopt. Additionally, experts also collaborated by providing market trends that their firms are investing in. The key findings challenge the traditional view of Gen-AI as just a supportive tool. Instead, the experts explore the Gen-AI capacity to reinforce or redefine a firm’s value proposition and improve its cost structure. The study also provides emerging trends, such as the one-person enterprise, which can be a redefining concept for business in the future. To conclude, this thesis underscores the potential impact that Gen-AI can have on business models. It contributes by presenting practical insights for businesses to benefit from the usage of Gen-AI while emphasizing responsible and ethical deployment. Overall, the research highlights Gen-AI as one of the main drivers of impact in the digital transformation landscape. ItemClassifying companies in the metaverse technology ecosystem: an assessment model(2023-08-25) Corson, Clothilde Marie Henriette ColetteThis study is looking backwards on a 30 years history of usage of the word “metaverse” from its first description in 1992 to its conversion into a striking business buzzword in 2021. This historical lens is helping us to propose a definition of the metaverse that will aim at improving the understanding we are having of the metaverse ecosystem. We will challenge the use cases it is able to address today as a new technology for industries through the introduction of an the assessment matrix. This matrix, first proposed in this paper, is proposing an easy way for businesses to navigate the metaverse ecosystem as it enables a first shot at benchmarking under one framework, based on the technology’s definition, various actors of interest to prepare for investment or collaboration and according to the criteria that matters the most for the user. ItemThe business model of solar energy communities: a case study from Portugal(2023-09-21) Oliveira, Lucas Margaritelli deWhat is the self-consumption solar energy community The main objective of this research is to understand how the business model of Solar Neighbourhoods is developed, which characteristics are most valued by stakeholders and possible implications for the model. According to the European Union's own guidelines, its members should promote energy efficiency, the use of renewable energies and the development of new energy solutions to have a positive impact on global warming. In this context, energy communities were created, where renewable solar energy is produced and shared by its members, being the members defined between producers, who produce electricity, and neighbors, who use the energy from solar panels. The panels are installed in the producer's space and all members of the ecosystem can benefit from a reduced price on the electricity bill they self-consume from the neighborhood. According to the standards released by the European Commission, energy communities can be characterized by the organization of collective energy efforts addressed to members of the local geographical community. In doing so, they can contribute to increasing public acceptance of renewable energy projects and facilitate the attraction of private investments in the clean energy transition. In order to answer the research question, a large company in the energy sector in Portugal was chosen that already presents the solution of communities in its portfolio. With this, several indepth interviews were conducted with members of the company's board, existing customers, and potential customers to capture in depth what the business model of the so-called "Solar Neighbourhoods" and its impacts. From the results of the interviews, it was possible to structure a business model for this solution, understand its value proposition and attributes, as well as what are the main points of improvement and existing challenges for the. Factors such as attractive price, ease of implementation, credibility of the company and sustainable impact were considered most relevant to stakeholders, but it was interesting to perceive and analyse the criticality of each theme for the ecosystem and divergences in what is communicated by the company and what is received by customers. ItemFamily dynamics and their role in shaping female entrepreneurial identities(2023-09-27) Ulreich, Constanze TheresaThis master's thesis explores the family environment's critical influence on shaping female entrepreneurs' identity, emphasizing how familial experiences impact their entrepreneurial pursuits. Drawing on existing literature that identifies a wide array of dynamics in the family environment affecting all phases of the startup process and acknowledging the recognized differences in entrepreneurial mindsets between genders, the study narrows its focus to women. Through life story interviews with 22 female founders from diverse industries and stages in their venture creation process, the investigation uncovers multifaceted connections between family context and entrepreneurial behaviors and attitudes. Employing narrative analysis, seven salient themes were identified, emphasizing the differentiated roles that fathers and mothers play in shaping aspects such as the daughter's risk-taking behavior, level of confidence, need for support and security, and entrepreneurial intention. The findings contribute to the nuanced understanding of how family dynamics, specifically parental behavior, interact with and shape female entrepreneurial identity, and provide insights into the complex nature of gender differences in the entrepreneurial domain. ItemDirect indexing on portfolio returns: evidence from tax loss harvesting practices: exploring the tax alpha opportunities of direct indexing(2023-09-04) Tolesani, GabrielThis paper aims to analyze the portfolio return characteristics of investing in an index through direct indexing and to measure the potential tax alpha derived from this investment strategy across various market cycles. The research objective is to explore how direct indexing can generate tax advantages in different market environments. Specifically, the focus is on assessing the potential benefits of tax loss harvesting when holding a direct indexing portfolio as opposed to an ETF or mutual fund. This study relied on a backtest simulation of an index using real market data based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average, in comparison to the implementation of a direct indexing strategy. The analysis spanned from the year 2000 to 2019 and was divided into four separate subperiods in the data modeling process. It was possible to conclude that lower market stability, as measured by periodic verification of the portfolio’s cost basis, provides more tax loss harvesting opportunities in direct indexing. Furthermore, our study finds that the pre tax portfolio performance of the subperiods is closely associated with the tax alpha capabilities of direct indexing. Given the academic research objective of this study, we hope our direct indexing analysis can add value to the ongoing discussion and development of this increasingly relevant investment strategy. ItemA comparative study about startup investors profiles: the influence of Corporate Venture Capital when participating in investment rounds for startups(2023-08-02) Castro, Pedro Lucas deThis study focuses on investigating the effect of big corporations acting as investors on startups, with particular emphasis on its role in shaping the startup valuation. This research investigates the correlation between corporations participating at investment rounds linked to startups higher valuations. This study uses the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analysis based on past transactions to show the relationships between Corporate Venture Capital (CVC) and the startups valuation. The dataset at disposal, captured from Pitchbook backlog, comprises multiple years of data, with over 25,000 CVC investment rounds compared to almost 150,000 investment rounds without CVCs from 2013 to 2023. This provides us the capacity to analyze evolving trends and patterns over a considerable period. The analysis uncovers that the type of investor at each round, like the CVC, also leaves a profound positive impact on startup valuation. However, when CVCs operate within the same sector as the startup, the relationship with a higher valuation tends to be weaker. This can be attributed to the common challenges faced by companies when trying to impose their operational bias on distinct companies, often without success. This study enriches the comprehension of how investors affect startups' success, and it will support entrepreneurs picking the right composition of limited partners during its fundraising, it also helps CVCs to understand their own effect over startups and the tangible value it aggregates starting on the investment date. ItemDeterminants of project team structure for innovation: impact vs feature teams in French software startups(2023-06-19) Claraz-Donnadieu, HugoThis study examines the common challenges faced by different types of product development teams in French software startups and the principles behind choosing between two specific types of project’s team structure : feature teams and impact teams. The aim of this research is to understand how software startups balance the challenges faced by these structures and the principles behind selecting one particular structure. Based on semi-structured interviews with key product development stakeholders in the French software startups, the research identified challenges based on feature development prioritization, communication between stakeholders, technical debt, and product and market uncertainties. These challenges faced by product development teams need to be balanced with determining principles to decide to structure as a feature team or as an impact team. The principles identified by this research cover the product and startups maturity relative to the product-market-fit, the equilibrium between time-to-market and business objectives, and the alignment of leadership with the product vision. This research expects to provide actionable advice to software startups and product leaders to select a type of product development team based on the identified challenges and principles. ItemThe B Corp Impact Assessment: a value beyond certification? A study on the uses of the BIA to influence companies’ CSR strategies(2023-04-14) Thiam, SéfianeThe purpose of this paper is to offer insights into the value of the B Corp evaluation tool, the B Corp Impact Assessment, for companies of all sizes, sectors and geographical locations. It sheds light on how the B Corp Impact Assessment can be used by companies to formulate and guide CSR strategies adapted to their context. For this purpose, it relied on qualitative semi-structured interviews with consulting professionals expert in working with B Corporations or companies using the BIA. Drawing from the interviews, and relying on thematic analysis, it explores key topics: the BIA’s ability to perform adequate CSR performance diagnostics, its value to monitor CSR strategies over time and evolve, and its potential to engage internally and encourage the development of more ambitious CSR initiatives. Our findings show that the BIA has a strong potential to guide companies in developing sound CSR strategies aligned with their material issues, adapted to their specific context and which adapt over time. They also emphasise, in line with previous research, the importance of the company’s motivations and its approach to the BIA in order to drive real positive impact and value creation aligned with the company’s core mission. ItemResource allocation in the Southeast region of Brazil: the influence of organizational structure in decision-making(2023-05-29) Carvalho, Bárbara Verdade de AquinoPrivate Social Investment (PSI) is one of the manners Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is implemented in companies in Brazil. It has grown in the country in the last years and its responsible for organizations’ financial sustainability. Research has been made to understand the criteria behind the choices of social organizations and the projects that will have resources allocated to. Research regarding the sectors responsible for this activity and their names is also found. However, the link between the sector and the action is not found in literature. This is important as it impacts how private social investment is developed and applied in Brazil. Moreover, it enables the understanding of the culture that is created with it in companies. Therefore, this research has the goal of answering the question: What are the differences in resource allocation in companies with exclusive CSR departments and those without? To answer it, interviews were done with employees responsible for PSI in several industries and in sectors with exclusive CSR responsibility and non-exclusive ones. Data was collected and analyzed through a qualitative Grounded Theory Method. The three-step coding associated with the method decreased biases and generated categories that connected the concepts brought up in the research question. These categories showed that indeed there is a connection between the exclusivity of the actions of sector behind CSR and resource allocation, even if an indirect one. The conclusion led to a theory that CSR non-exclusive sectors develop strategies with more efficiency and take social demands more into consideration when making decisions. ItemDigital influencer as a decision maker: moderation effects on customer attitudes towards brands and purchase intentions for products and services(2023-05-18) Karacsonyi, Rúbia SinhoriniSocial influence plays a significant role in customer decision-making, as people are often influenced by the opinions, beliefs, and attitudes of others. In today’s digital age, companies are increasingly turning to digital influencers to spread positive endorsements and promote their products or services. However, little research has been conducted on the effects of digital influencers as active decision-makers within the organizational framework. To address this gap, this study was conducted to examine the effects of using a digital influencer as a decision-maker on customer attitudes towards brands and purchase intentions for products and services. The study drew upon existing literature on celebrity endorsement and considered factors such as credibility, attractiveness, meaning transfer, and the match-up congruence. A survey across three categories (“Alcoholic Beverages,” “Plant Based Food,” and “Finance Services”) and divided into two groups (“Non-decision Maker” and “Decision Maker”) was applied to a sample of 158 respondents experienced in social media and online platforms. Then, a regression analysis was combined with the Andrew Hayes’s Process method to test the hypothesis. The results showed that the presence of a “Decision Maker” deflated the “Attractiveness” and “Match-up Congruence” effect of the influencer, but maintained the “Brand Meaning Transference” on the relationship between “Customer Attitudes Towards Brands”. Additionally, it maintained the “Attractiveness” effect and increased the “Brand Meaning Transference” effect in the relationship between “Purchase Intentions”. These findings contribute to both theory and practice, as they shed light on the potential benefits and drawbacks of using digital influencers as decision-makers in the organizational framework. ItemESG in consumer goods: the relationship between financial materiality and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)(2023-06-19) Iwami, Kanyon MamoruFinancially material, sustainability accounting is critical to catalyze private sector funds to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) information within the consumer goods sector is regularly found to have a weaker relationship to the SDGs when compared to other sectors. In this essay, I discuss the roadmap for pairing Sustainable Account Standards Board (SASB) material indicators for the consumer goods sector to the SDGs indicators. SASB’s ESG framework is regarded as industry best-in-class and is supported by investors with over US$81T in assets under management (AUM). The goal of this exercise is to identify weak and strong linkages between the SASB ESG framework and the SDG indicators, through an analysis of SASB’s 7 different consumer sector industry frameworks with the 248 UN SDG indicators. The results identified SDGs that remain unaddressed or have weak linkages to industry interpretations of consumer sector ESG materiality. Understanding the overlaps and gaps between public and private sector impact frameworks will enable greater cross-sector collaboration, and help companies align or better understand their impact and ESG strategy that not only mitigates risk, but creates long-term value that aligns to the goals and initiatives of community stakeholders and public sector institutions. ItemA comparative analysis of charismatic leadership between Donald Trump and Narendra Modi during the Covid crisis(2023-05-08) Poddar, AbhijitThe study examines the charismatic leadership of two global leaders, former US President Donald Trump and the current Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during the start of the coronavirus pandemic. The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate which of the two leaders exhibited more charisma in their rhetoric during the covid-19 pandemic starting six months; the secondary purpose is to highlight the common and differentiating features in the leadership of both these leaders during the same period. The study analyses the rhetoric made by the two leaders during the pandemic and examines the charismatic leadership constructs from them using a specialized software called WordStat. The seven charismatic leadership constructs evaluated are collective focus, follower's worth, similarity to followers, cooperation, adversity, tangibility, and actionoriented constructs. The results indicate that overall Trump was ahead of Modi in usage of the charismatic constructs by a slight margin and Modi excelled in the usage of individual constructs in his speeches. Modi had a better mix of individual constructs than Trump in his speeches, whereas Trump relied heavily on the construct of collective focus. The overall value of the research can be highlighted by the fact that such a study comparing a western, developed nation’s head of state with an eastern, emerging nation’s head of state during a global emergency because of the pandemic was not done before. The study not only answered the research questions but also found that the usage of constructs by these two leaders in the context of an emergency are completely different from that of prior studies of similar kind such as during the presidential elections of the US. Most words in their rhetoric belonged to collective focus, adversity, and action-oriented constructs, whereas the remaining constructs had less usage. ItemA case study on the success dimensions and success factors of Swiss companies in fintech projects(2023-05-11) Hochuli, Fabian HanspeterThis study investigated the success of fintech projects in Switzerland using a descriptive case study approach to understand the contributing factors. It aimed to provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the Swiss fintech industry and enhance the understanding of such projects. The study's findings revealed that the success of such projects could be interpreted in different ways and that, in the Swiss case, they include an appropriate working model, transparency, and effective communication. The study also found that the dimensions of the Project Success Framework (Shenhar et al., 2001) are perceived differently in terms of success and that the impact of these dimensions can vary depending on the project phase. This study provides valuable insights and ideas about the success of fintech projects in Switzerland and contributes to understanding fintech and IT projects in the country. Using the Project Success Framework (Shenhar et al., 2001) to identify key dimensions and success factors, the study highlights the importance of these dimensions for project success. This research can guide companies operating in the fintech industry to improve their efficiency and performance. ItemUnpacking sustainability practices of Western Cape wine supply chains: a practice-based view(2023-05-25) Riley, Catarina MouraAlthough sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has become an important field for several industries, little is known in the wine industry. To fill this gap, this master thesis investigates intra- and inter-organizational sustainability practices implemented in Western Cape wine supply chains. In doing so, the practice-based view theory is used to understand why, how, and by whom these practices were implemented. South Africa was chosen because it has a robust wine sustainability scheme that includes 95% of the country’s grape growers and wine cellars. Nine case studies were conducted from May to September 2022 through semistructured interviews with managers from nine wineries and one cork supplier subsidiary located in Western Cape. A total of 12 interviews were carried out with an average duration of 90 minutes and transcribed for analysis. Observations were made in short vineyard and cellar tours. The data were analyzed within and cross-case. Data coding was performed with all transcribed interviews and to assist in this analysis, the author used a structured technique supported by ATLAS TI. All analyzed wineries have a vertical supply chain; they are responsible for all production stages, from growing grapes to bottling wine. 15 sustainability practices were identified. Most of these practices are both intra- and inter-organizational. Many practices are related to the environmental dimension of sustainability, e.g., managing soil sustainably, decreasing GHG emissions, and protecting local biodiversity. This is due to the fact that the region of Western Cape is prone to draught and fires, as well as biodiversity degradation. Also, all nine cases are part of the Integrated Production of Wine (IPW) scheme which audits the wineries on environmental criteria regularly. Besides that, the author identified practices that are more related to the social and economic dimensions of sustainability, such as assisting workers, developing and having an educational role in the community, and guaranteeing business continuity in times of crisis. These practices emerged due to South Africa’s context; the local government’s insufficient health assistance and educational opportunities to underprivileged populations, alcohol sale restrictions during COVID-19 lockdowns, and the national electricity crisis that imposes long periods of loadshedding on the whole country. The practices are led by wine company owners, and managers, who usually have a personal tie to the surrounding environment, are motivated to solve environmental and social problems, and are responsible for ensuring sustainability certification for their business. A number of other individuals and organizations, such as NGOs, conservancy groups, recycling companies, and suppliers are fundamental for interorganizational sustainability practices to take place. Moreover, financial, physical, natural, and human resources are necessary to implement sustainability practices along the wine supply chain. By showing intra- and inter-organizational sustainability practices, this master thesis reveals the necessary activities and resources needed to adopt these practices, and investigates how these practices emerged. In addition, managers in wine supply chains and other food and beverage industries could employ the identified practices in their respective companies, and thus address the United Nations Sustainable Developments Goals, such as, protecting life on land, climate action, quality education, and promoting good health and well-being. ItemBusiness transformation: the obstacles of metamorphosis in a company(2023-04-12) Hedetoft, Ulf AlexanderO processo de transformação comercial é crítica para que empresas se mantenham competitivas em um mercado constantemente em evolução. Esta tese qualitativa busca compreender as distintas camadas de vantagem que as empresas tem, especificamente no que diz respeito à inovação, organização e transformações digitais, para assim revolucionar suas áreas de atuação primários, e como isso pode facilitar suas perspetivas de desenvolvimento empresarial dentro das suas respetivas áreas, utilizando-se das transformações no seus negócios principais. A fim de alcançar este objetivo, este estudo usa um vinco qualitativo, juntando literatura académica que define vários aspetos das estratégias de negócios, aliado ao entendimento de profissionais operando em diversos ambientes, para assim explorar a questão de pesquisa: Quais mudanças nos negócios levam as empresas a uma transformação? A principal descoberta deste estudo sugerem que a transformação do núcleo é um processo em andamento que acontece numa escala baixa dentro de empresas grandes, e em escala alta em empresas pequenas e start-ups. No entanto, esta transformação pode ser acelerada diante das necessidades dos negócios ou interrupções no ambiente da empresa, inclusive mudanças no seu negocio principal. A tese conclui oferecendo uma estrutura conceitual com o objetivo de aumentar as estratégias de negócios e também de contribuir para a área académica através de uma investigação de um assunto relativamente pouco explorado. ItemHow are government’s decisions affected by an external power? The case of Huawei 5G in Brazil(2023-04-18) Li, YaThis thesis aims to investigate the impact of China's growing commercial relationship with Brazil, as well as China's vaccine diplomacy, on Brazil's decision not to ban Huawei 5G in Brazil. Specifically, the study explores how China's increasing influence on Brazil's political decision-making processes led to Brazil becoming one of the first countries to purchase CoronaVac, a vaccine whose Phase 3 clinical trial data had not yet been released, and how this influenced the Brazilian government's decision not to ban Huawei from implementing 5G technology. The objectives of the study are to analyze the role of Chinese vaccine diplomacy in facilitating Huawei 5G's entry into Brazil and to explore the influence of China's increasing role in Brazilian politics. The research methodology is case study involving a combination of content analysis of official documents and news articles. The findings reveal that Chinese vaccine diplomacy played a significant role in shaping Brazil's decision-making regarding Huawei 5G, highlighting the need for further analysis of China's influence in Brazilian politics. This thesis contributes to the field by addressing the lack of comprehensive studies on China's increasing role in Brazil and by providing insights into the complex interplay between economic and political interests in the decision-making processes of developing countries. ItemCustomer Success Management in fintechs: an analysis of its main challenges and opportunities for improvements(2023-04-13) Maia, Pedro Albuquerque CearáCustomer Success Management (CSM) is a critical component for a company to ensure that customers are satisfied with the products or services offered and that they continue to use them over time. The goal of this study is to identify and analyze the main challenges that this area faces in fintechs point out opportunities for improvement so that these companies guarantee the satisfaction of their customers and stand out in an extremely competitive market. To obtain the necessary answers, this research adopted a qualitative approach through interviews with three groups of professionals linked to the CSM area of a Brazilian fintech. Through a deep theoretical basis and the data collected from the interviews, it was possible to observe some of the main pains and challenges of CSM professionals in the analyzed context, in addition to opportunities for improvement to enhance the performance of the area. We hope that this thesis can shed some light on professionals and companies that wish to develop better CSM practices to ensure the full satisfaction and loyalty of their customers. It is important to emphasize that the challenges may vary according to the region and maturity of the company and, for this reason, the suggested next steps are related to the detailed study of fintechs from other countries. This will allow for a deeper understanding of successful approaches and opportunities for improvement in different markets. ItemCEO activism: a case study under the stakeholder alignment model(2023-04-10) Ferreira, Isabela Cristina SanchesIn the current environment of uncertainty, political polarization, and dissatisfaction with traditional politics, CEO activism has become a rising trend among corporate leaders. CEOs are increasingly involved in activism on issues that are not directly linked to their firm’s business. The Stakeholder Alignment Model theory, proposed by scholars Hambrick and Wowak, posits that CEOs’ decisions to engage in activism are influenced both by their personal beliefs and individual traits, as well as the values and beliefs of relevant stakeholders, such as employees and consumers. This study seeks to examine and test the Stakeholder Alignment Model by conducting a comparative case study on the activism of two CEOs from Brazilian mass retailers, Luiza Trajano of Magazine Luiza and Luciano Hang of Havan. Through the analysis of their distinct activism profiles, this research aims to identify commonalities and disparities, thereby contributing to the study of CEO activism, its antecedents, and manifestation within Brazil’s current political polarization context. Additionally, the study draws managerial lessons from their examples of activism. ItemEconomic integration of refugees and asylum seekers in Brazil: the role of civil society organizations(2023-04-11) Ishizuka, Maya FernandesThe number of refugees and asylum seekers has increased dramatically since 2011. According to data published by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 2022, over 30 million people have left their countries of origin to seek asylum in other regions due to different types of conflicts, persecution, natural disasters, and human rights violation. In Brazil the, despite a smaller number of refugees compared to other territories, the country has seen an increase in the volume on the entry of asylum seekers over the past years. The following research aims to understand the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in supporting the integration of refugees and asylum seekers in the labor sphere. The study focuses on the importance of organizations to help refugees to achieve their integration, particularly in obtaining a source of income, gathering information and perspective on what are the activities CSOs perform, opportunities and obstacles they face to support the refugees, as well as what is their interaction with local and federal governments, and private sector. The research explores the perception of those directly involved in the process, in face of the challenges that compose the practical application of refugees and asylum seekers to join the workforce in Brazil, considering the specificities for this population, as well as the influence of CSOs in achieving such integration. For this qualitative research, the author exposes the resources available to this group, including but not limited to public policies, NGOs, private sector industries, and what is the point of view of employees of CSOs around the services available. The statements were obtained through data collection using semi-structured interviews with employees from multiple organizations that support migrants. The conclusion aims to illustrate how CSOs support occurs, what are the gaps, critical points regarding employment, main actors, and key roles in order to support refugees to achieve economic integration. ItemThe influence of the private sector on improving the french healthcare system(2023-04-13) Luz, Hugo Machado daThis master thesis analyzes the impact of the private sector on improving healthcare quality. The subject of this thesis is particularly significant in view of the coronavirus pandemic that has shaken the whole world during the years 2020 and 2021. The French healthcare system has been known for decades for its quality and its accessibility for all. After World War II, French society recognized every individual’s right to have access to affordable healthcare with the publication of the ordinance of October 4th, 1945, which established Social Security (Pallier, 2005). Nowadays, health policy, technological innovation, and public health management are some of the most critical factors to determine the quality of a state’s healthcare system (OECD, 2020). But the quality of a country’s healthcare system is also the sum of multiple dimensions: economic, regulation, technology, ethic, and even cultural. The harmony of those dimensions is significant and explains mostly why life expectancy differs from one country to another, and even from one neighborhood to another (OCDE, 2007). For the past decades, most improvements in the healthcare sector came from private actors, sometimes supported by public programs, who developed new technologies and new ways to access health resources. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyze how the private sector helps the government to improve the French healthcare system. To do so, there is a need to identify the different healthcare fields that have evolved over the last decades, and which actors are involved in the transformation of the healthcare system and industry.