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    Building effective collaboration between health systems and the life sciences industry
    (Development in Practice, 2019-08-30) Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Teixeira, Mariana Ramos; Costa, Nilson do Rosario
    This viewpoint article reflects on the challenges of promoting affordable and innovative medicines whilst fostering a competitive environment for research and development in developing countries. We explore the life sciences industrial policies of Brazil and the United Kingdom in order to identify mechanisms and conditions that could serve as lessons to practitioners in other countries. We suggest three crucial design attributes: a strategic collaboration between a health system and the private sector, coordination and accountability mechanisms, and a network of support (that is, embeddedness).
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    Teaching qualitative research methods in political science: does one size fits all?
    (Journal of Political Science Education, 2019-09-01) Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Segatto, Catarina Ianni
    Despite the relevance of qualitative methods in political science, the process of teaching qualitative research has received relatively little attention in the literature. What is it like to teach qualitative research in political science? This paper focuses on the teaching of qualitative research by exploring examples from Brazil. The country is home to some of the largest higher education providers of political science in Latin America; however, the teaching of appropriate research methods is still incomplete. This paper identifies challenges to qualitative methods education in the country and its evolution. It provides lessons about the teaching of qualitative methods that can be relevant to educators in less institutionalized political science departments, to non-English speaking learners, and to Global South scholars.
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    A rotatividade dos servidores de confiança no Governo Federal Brasileiro, 2010-2011
    (Novos estudos CEBRAP, 2012-11) Praça, Sérgio; Freitas, Andréa Marcondes de; Hoepers, Bruno
    What are the determinants of turnover among political appointees in the Brazilian federal government? This article shows that a change in minister does not necessarily entail change among political appointees, although this is true for higher‑level appointees with policymaking tasks. Contrary to initial expectations, we find that agencies affected by corruption scandals have lower turnover than other agencies. We argue that it is necessary to consider the policy expertise of appointees, measured as longevity in civil service, in order to understand bureaucratic turnover. Further research on political appointees and their relationships with politi‑ cal parties and ministers in Brazil will likely shedlight on important, yet neglected, aspects of the political system.
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    Hybrid political institutions and governability: the budgetary process in Brazil
    (Journal of Politics in Latin America, 2009) Pereira Filho, Carlos Eduardo Ferreira; Orellana, Salomon
    In this paper we take a close look at some of the particular pathways by which majoritarian and consensual institutions affect governability. We demonstrate that the mix of majoritarian and consensual institutions found within a country can influence these pathways quite dramatically, such that they produce rather different consequences for governability, even when these pathways are relatively similar in nature. Particularly, we focus on the rules governing the relationship between the President and the Legislature, especially the appropriation of amendments proposed by legislators. In some presidential countries, the President possesses a partial veto (or a line-item veto), which allows him/her to approve or strike appropriations, which legislators introduce in amendments. Concentrating on the case of Brazil, we argue and demonstrate that whether or not the President can use this tool to sustain governing majorities (i.e., to increase governability) depends on the kind of amendment to the budget introduced by legislators. One kind, individual amendment, is linked to the majoritarian institution of a powerful presidency and therefore helps to increase governability. A second kind, collective amendment, is linked to consensual institutions and actually does not enhance legislative support for the Executive.
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    On the marginal social cost of cash-cum-in-kind transfers
    (2008) Duarte, Lucas Monteiro; Mattos, Enlinson; Serillo, Juliana Aranha
    This paper investigates the marginal social cost of cash-cum-in-kind transfers (MSCKT). Based on a generalization of Wildasin (1984), we characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds depends on the relation between labor supply and the cash-cum-in-kind transfers. To estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods, and simulate the MSCKT for Brazil, we use the Brazilian household data survey in 2004. Our simulations suggest that MSCKT can increases up to 14% if compared to cases in which cash-cum-in-kind transfers have their effects ignored on labor supply response on the part of individuals.
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    Poverty, informality and the optimal general income tax policy
    (2012) Arbex, Marcelo Aarestru; Mattos, Enlinson; Trudeau, Christian
    This paper investigates the optimal general income tax and audit policies when poverty is considered a public bad in an economy with two types of individuals whose income may not be observed. Our results depend on whether poverty is measured in absolute or in relative terms. For a relative poverty measure, it is possible to characterize conditions under which both rich and poor agents face either positive, negative or zero marginal tax rates. There is distortion at the top as long as the rich can ináuence the welfare of the whole society through a measure of poverty and a distortion might be optimum to reduce aggregate poverty. Those that declare to be rich can be audited randomly, similar to their counterpart poor ones. Lastly, honesty may be punished as well as rewarded. With an absolute poverty measure, we replicate the results in the optimum tax literature, i.e., "no distortion and no auditing at the top".
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    Dry law and homicides: evidence from the São Paulo metropolitan area
    (2009) Biderman, Ciro; Mello, João Manoel Pinho de; Schneider, Alexandre Alves
    We use time-series and cross-section variation in adoption of dry laws in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) to measure the impact of recreational consumption of alcohol on violent behavior. Adoption of dry laws causes a 10% reduction in homicides. As auxiliary evidence, we show a similar reduction in battery and deaths by car accidents.
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    Delegation dilemmas: coalition size, electoral risk, and regulatory design in new democracies
    (2009) Pereira Filho, Carlos Eduardo Ferreira; Melo, Marcus André B. C. de; Werneck, Heitor Franco
    This paper investigates determinants of regulatory agency design in multiparty coalition governments. Current research has mainly focused on US institutions and its findings are therefore context specific. We find electoral uncertainty, government turnover, and coalition size are key to explaining the bureaucratic autonomy with reference to the 31 state regulatory agencies that have been recently created at the subnational level in Brazil. Legislative support enjoyed by chief executives only acquires explanatory power when interacted with government turnover. Because governors have great ability in building oversized majority coalition, coalition strength influences the governor’s choice when he/she faces credible threats from rival elite groups.
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    Las elecciones que hacen los gobernadores: los roles de los “checks and balances” y la competencia política
    (Studia Politica, 2009) Alston, Lee J.; Melo, Marcus André B. C. de; Mueller, Bernardo Pinheiro Machado; Pereira Filho, Carlos Eduardo Ferreira
    States usually differ markedly in terms of public goods provision and corruption. Why are some state governments able to provide adequate health and education services, but others tend to specialize in the provision of private goods such as public sector jobs and targeted transfers to specific clienteles? Why are some states better capable of promoting economic development while others allow stagnation? Why is corruption more prevalent in some states than in others? Why are some states more efficient in the provision of publicly-provided goods and service than others? Exploring the idea that political institutions are important determinants of the policies implemented in states, we propose a model of the policymaking process and then test its implications with state-level data for the period 1999 to 2006 in Brazil. The focus of the empirical tests is on the impact of political competition and checks & balances on the characteristics of the policies that emerge in the states. Political competition and checks & balances have important effects on the choices made by governors and other political actors by determining how long they expect to be in power, what they can do while in power, and at what costs. We develop an index of checks & balances for Brazilian states and test the interaction of checks & balances with political competition. We found that the impact of political competition varies with the degree of checks & balances.
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    Political appointments and coalition management in Brazil, 2007-2010
    (Journal of Politics in Latin America, 2011) Praça, Sérgio; Freitas, Andréa Marcondes de; Hoepers, Bruno
    Studies on coalition management in presidential systems usually focus on two types of goods used by the president and formateur party to hold together coalitions: exchange goods (such as individual budget amendments) and coalition goods (such as ministries). This research notes analyzes, with an original dataset of party members and political appointees in Brazil, a different type of good: presidential political appointments. Our study shows that partisan political appointees vary greatly among Brazilian ministries and within them. We also found that there is a disconnect between how many seats a political party holds in Congress and the number of political appointment offices it controls. This has implications for the literature on bureaucracy and politics and the literature on coalition management.
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    Constituição, governo e democracia no Brasil
    (Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, 2006-06) Couto, Cláudio Gonçalves; Arantes, Rogério Bastos
    The Brazilian constitution of 1988 has a high rate of constitutional amendmenting, with 58 amendments in eighteen years (3.22 amendments per year), most of the times sponsored by the Executive Power, aiming at implementing public policies. Due to the fact that the post-1988 governmental program has abided a constituent agenda with important implications towards the relations between the Executive and both the Congress and the Judiciary, the comprehension of the current Brazilian political dynamics passes necessarily through the understanding of our constitutional profile. Considered that, this article analyses the profile of the 1988 constitution based on its contents discerning to what extent the constitutional text – as well as constitutional norms – contemplate public policies, causing it to be more prone to change initiatives. Such analysis has been done by means of a Constitutional Analysis Methodology (Metodologia de Análise Constitucional - MAC) developed by the authors, which allows for the interpretation of the constitutional devices meaning as well as its measurement.
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    Todos os servidores públicos são bem remunerados?: uma comparação entre as carreiras dos governos estaduais brasileiros
    (2007) Moriconi, Gabriela Miranda
    Brazilian workers receive better average wages in the public sector than those they would get if they work in the private sector. However, it looks like this is not homogeneous between the different careers of civil servants. This paper’s objective is to search for empirical evidences that brazilian state governments do not treat their careers the same way when they formulate their wage politics. This paper also tries to determine whether there is a pattern in state government’s behavior on establishing better compensation for some careers and not for others. This way, fourteen state government careers were chosen and compared to similar individuals in the private sector through an estimation of public-private gaps. We used PNADs data from 2002 to 2005 for the estimations. The results show that hypothesis may be correct: publicprivate wage gaps are extremely diverse when we compare the careers within the states, but seems to follow a pattern – taxes inspectors receive the best differentials while college teachers get the worst in all state governments.
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    Aprovação de empréstimos a governos subnacionais no Brasil: há espaço para comportamento político oportunista?
    (Dados: Revista de Ciências Sociais, 2008) Arvate, Paulo Roberto; Biderman, Ciro; Mendes, Marcos
    The aim of this study was to test whether political influence comes into play in the approval of loans to State governments by the Brazilian National Senate. Although all the requests for loans submitted to the Senate during the period under study were approved, we demonstrate that the time required for approval depends on the political relationship between the applicant (State Governor) and the Senate members occupying key positions in the review process. Using “survival analysis” technique, we observed that when the State Governor requesting the loan and the Senator reporting on the matter belong to the same party coalition that helped elect the Governor, loans are approved in less time. On the other hand, approval takes longer if the partisan relationship is broken during the loan review process. Finally, we observed that the more loan applications from a single State in the previous six months, the longer the approval time for a new request. This analysis considered all State loan applications reviewed by the Brazilian Senate from 1989 to 2001.
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    Uma análise da eficiência nos gastos em educação fundamental para os municípios paulistas
    (Planejamento e Políticas Públicas, 2011) Zoghbi, Ana Carolina Pereira; Mattos, Enlinson; Rocha, Fabiana; Arvate, Paulo Roberto
    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the relative efficiency of the counties with regard to spending on primary education in 2005. To this end, we used some indexes and indicators of results of an analysis of efficient frontier. It was, also, to relate the efficiency scores with GDP per capita, population size and the political party in power in the municipalities. Furthermore, they analyzed the relationship between decentralization and efficiency. It was noted that some municipalities for waste is extremely high. The main contribution of this work concerns the creation of performance indicators in education, emphasizing the need for accountability.
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    Mensurando o desempenho e a eficiência dos gastos estaduais em educação fundamental e média
    (Estudos Econômicos, 2009) Zoghbi, Ana Carolina Pereira; Mattos, Enlinson; Rocha, Fabiana; Arvate, Paulo Roberto
    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relative performance and efficiency of Brazilian states in the provision of basic and secondary education. In order to do so performance indicators are initially built using quantitative and qualitative variables. These indicators are then used as products in order to capture crossstates differences in the levels of efficiency. The results indicate that the States with better performance are not necessarily the most efficient. Besides, for the great majority of States there is room to improve efficiency by moving towards best practice in public resources management.
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    Aumentando a eficácia e a eficiência da avaliação do ensino superior: a relação entre o Enem e o Enade
    (Revista EconomiA, 2008) Zoghbi, Ana Carolina Pereira; Oliva, Bruno Teodoro; Moriconi, Gabriela Miranda
    Administering the National Assessment Examination of Student Performance (Enade) to new students meant a signifi cant advance in the evaluation of higher education in the country: the possibility to calculate a measure of added value of the course, the Indicator of the Diff erence between Expected and Observed Performances (IDD). A proposal for improving the assessment of higher education in Brazil, however, would be to use the results of the National Secondary Education Examination (Enem) as a baseline for calculating the IDD. % ere would be an increase in effi ciency due to the non-application of Enade to freshmen, thus reducing costs. In turn, the increase in effi ciency would be due to obtaining a better baseline, because of strong incentives to take the examination. In this study, we analyzed the possibility of using the Enem results as an alternative to the Enade results of freshmen in order to calculate the IDD of the courses. When a new IDD was calculated, replacing the freshmen’s Enade grade with the Enem grade of these students, we found correlations between this new IDD and the traditionally calculated IDD, of about 0.75, indicating that there would not be a very signifi cant change in the ranking of individuals grades, which would mean that this substitution is quite viable.