Vídeos dos Destaques de Projetos de Pesquisa – 2023

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    Inteligência artificial: tecnologia aplicada à gestão dos conflitos no âmbito do Poder Judiciário
    (2023) Salomão, Luis Felipe; Tauk, Caroline
    Inteligência Artificial: Tecnologia Aplicada à gestão dos conflitos no âmbito do poder judiciário - Este estudo foi selecionado entre os Destaques da Fundação Getulio Vargas em 2023 pela Comissão de Pesquisa e Inovação.
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    Climate adaptation policies and infant health: evidence from a water policy in Brazil
    (2023) Mata, Daniel da
    This paper studies how in utero exposure to a large-scale climate adaptation program affects birth outcomes. The program built around one million cisterns in Brazil’s poorest and driest region to promote small-scale decentralized rainfall harvesting. Access to cisterns during early pregnancy increased birth weight, particularly for more educated mothers. Data suggest that more educated women complied more with the program’s water disinfection training, highlighting that even simple, low-cost technologies require final users’ compliance (“the last mile”) to be effective. In the context of growing water scarcity, adaptation policies can foster neonatal health and thus have positive long-run implications.
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    Health impacts of wildfire-related air pollution in Brazil: a nationwide study of more than 2 million hospital admissions between 2008 and 2018
    (2023-12-29) Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João
    Este estudo foi selecionado entre os Destaques da Fundação Getulio Vargas em 2023 pela Comissão de Pesquisa e Inovação.
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    Expected socioeconomic-status-based discrimination reduces price sensitivity among the poor
    (2023-09-29) Jacob Neto, Jorge; Vieites, Yan; Goldszmidt, Rafael Guilherme Burstein; Andrade, Eduardo Bittencourt
    Low socioeconomic status (SES) consumers tend to be more price sensitive than their high-SES counterparts. Nonetheless, various economic-related burdens, such as mobility costs and lack of information, often hinder their ability to attend to scarcity—a phenomenon called “ghetto tax.” The current research moves a step further to show that even when very poor consumers can exert price sensitivity and are fully informed, a “psychological ghetto tax” often discourages them from doing so. Across five studies, we demonstrate that, relative to (a) high-SES consumers or (b) contexts of intragroup interaction, low-SES consumers are willing to pay higher prices and to accept lower value rewards to avoid commercial settings that require intergroup interaction (e.g., poor consumers in a high-end shopping mall). This effect is driven by the poor consumers’ heightened expectations of discrimination in upscale commercial settings, a concern virtually nonexistent among wealthy consumers. Companies’ inclusion statements emphasizing customer equality and/or customer diversity can serve as safety cues against stigmatized identities and increase low-SES consumers’price sensitivity.
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    How green is sugarcane ethanol?
    (2023-09-29) Sant'Anna, Marcelo Castello Branco
    Biofuels offer one approach for reducing carbon emissions in transportation. However, the agricultural expansion needed to produce biofuels may endanger tropical forests and thus offset the benefits of fossil fuel substitution. Whether this occurs depends on the extent to which increases in biofuels supply arise from gains in yields per acre or expansion in growing areas. I use a dynamic model of land use to disentangle the roles played by acreage expansion and yield increases in the supply of sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. The model is estimated using a panel of 1.8 million fields, which is built using remote sensing (satellite) information of sugarcane activities. My estimates imply that, at the margin, 94% of new ethanol comes from increases in area planted and only 6% from increases in yield. Direct deforestation accounts for 12% of area expansion. Balancing carbon emissions from deforestation and the carbon saved by fossil fuel substitution, I find that it would take about 20 years for the lower emissions from sugarcane ethanol to 'pay back' the added emissions from deforestation. As an illustrative policy experiment, I consider the effects of a 5 billion gallon sugarcane ethanol mandate (~ 3% of US gasoline consumption). Such policy would lead to a 1% price increase and deforestation of about 9,000 sq. km. ( ~3/4 the size of Connecticut).
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    Machine learning prediction of side effects for drugs in clinical trials
    (2023) Paccanaro, Alberto; Galeano, Diego
    Early and accurate detection of side effects is critical for the clinical success of drugs under development. Here, we aim to predict unknown side effects for drugs with a small number of side effects identified in randomized controlled clinical trials. Our machine learning framework, the geometric self-expressive model (GSEM), learns globally optimal self-representations for drugs and side effects from pharmacological graph networks. We show the usefulness of the GSEM on 505 therapeutically diverse drugs and 904 side effects from multiple human physiological systems. Here, we also show a data integration strategy that could be adopted to improve the ability of side effect prediction models to identify unknown side effects that might only appear after the drug enters the market.
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    Machine learning and network medicine approaches for drug repositioning for COVID-19
    (2023) Paccanaro, Alberto; Santos, Suzana de Siqueira; Torres, Mateo; Diego, Galeano; Sanchez, Maria del Mar; Cernuzzi, Luca
    We present two machine learning approaches for drug repurposing. While we have developed them for COVID-19, they are disease-agnostic. The two methodologies are complementary, targeting SARS-CoV-2 and host factors, respectively. Our first approach consists of a matrix factorization algorithm to rank broad-spectrum antivirals. Our second approach, based on network medicine, uses graph kernels to rank drugs according to the perturbation they induce on a subnetwork of the human interactome that is crucial for SARS-CoV-2 infection/replication. Our experiments show that our top predicted broad-spectrum antivirals include drugs indicated for compassionate use in COVID-19 patients; and that the ranking obtained by our kernel-based approach aligns with experimental data. Finally, we present the COVID-19 repositioning explorer (CoREx), an interactive online tool to explore the interplay between drugs and SARS-CoV-2 host proteins in the context of biological networks, protein function, drug clinical use, and Connectivity Map. CoREx is freely available at: https://paccanarolab.org/corex/.
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    Discrimination in the formation of academic networks: a field experiment
    (Escola de Economia de São Paulo - EESP, 2023-09-29) Ferman, Bruno; Ajzenman, Nicolas; Sant'Anna, Pedro C.
    Este estudo foi selecionado entre os Destaques da Fundação Getulio Vargas em 2023 pela Comissão de Pesquisa e Inovação. This paper assesses the results of an experiment designed to identify discrimination in users’ following behavior on Twitter. Specifically, we created fictitious bot accounts that resembled humans and claimed to be PhD students in economics. The accounts differed in three characteristics: gender (male or female), race (Black or White), and university affiliation (top- or lower-ranked). The bot accounts randomly followed Twitter users who form part of the #EconTwitter academic community. We measured how many follow-backs each account obtained after a given period. Twitter users from this community were 12% more likely to follow accounts of White students compared to those of Black students; 21% more likely to follow accounts of students from top-ranked, prestigious universities compared to accounts of lower-ranked institutions; and 25% more likely to follow female compared to male students. The racial gap persisted even among students from top-ranked institutions, suggesting that Twitter users racially discriminate even in the presence of a signal that could be interpreted as indicative of high academic potential. Notably, we find that Black male students from top-ranked universities receive no more follow-backs than White male students from relatively lower-ranked institutions.
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    A prioridade absoluta dos direitos de crianças e adolescentes
    (FGV Direito SP, 2023-09-29) Almeida, Heloísa Machado de; Barbosa, Ana Laura; Ferraro, Luíza Pavan
    Este estudo foi selecionado entre os Destaques da Fundação Getulio Vargas em 2023 pela Comissão de Pesquisa e Inovação. A Constituição Federal (CF) de 1988 assegura a crianças e adolescentes, com absoluta prioridade, o direito à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária, além de colocá-los a salvo de toda forma de negligência, discriminação, exploração, violência, crueldade e opressão. Seu sentido e alcance são influenciados e moldados pela forma como os tribunais interpretam os direitos das crianças e dos adolescentes. Contudo, esses avanços não permeiam todas as áreas de modo uniforme e enfrentam grandes desafios provenientes dos próprios tribunais.