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    The spenders-hoarders theory of capital accumulations, wealth distribution and fiscal policy
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia, 2007-09-21) Pestieau, Pierre; Thibault, Emmanuel
    This paper proposes a simple OLG model which is consistent with the essential facts about consumer behavior, capital accumulation and wealth distribution, and yields some new and surprising conclusions about fiscal policy. By considering a society in which individuais are distinguished according to two characteristics, altruism and wealth preference, we show that those who in the long run hold the bulk of private capital are not so rnuch motivated by dynastic altruism as by preference for wealth. Two types of social segmentation can result with different wcalth distribution. To a large extcnt our results seem to fit reality better than those obtained with standard optimal growth models in which dynastic altruism ( or r ate o f impatience) is the only source of heterogeneity: overaccumulation can appear, public debt and unfunded pensions are not neutra!, estate taxation can improve the welfare of the top wealthy.
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    Turnout and quorum in referenda
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2007) Herrera, Helios; Mattozzi, Andrea
    We analyse the effect of turnout requirement in referenda in the context of a group turnout model. We show that a participation quorum requirement may reduce the turnout so severely that it generates a 'quorum paradox': in equilibrium, the expected turnout exceds the participation quorum only if this requirement is not imposed. Moreover, a participation quorum does not necessarily imply a bias for the status quo. We also show that in order to induce a given expected turnout, the quorum should be set at a level that is lower than half tha target, and the effect of a participation quorum on welfare is ambiguous. On the one hand, the quorum decreases voters' welfare by misrepresenting the will of the majority. On the other hand, it might also reduce the total cost of voting. Finally, we show that an approval quorum is essentially equivalent to a participation quorum.
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    Mid-auction information acquisition
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia, 2000-10-09) Rezende, Leonardo
    This paper studies a model of a sequential auction where bidders are allowed to acquire further information about their valuations of the object in the middle of the auction. It is shown that, in any equilibrium where the distribution of the final price is atornless, a bidder's best response has a simple characterization. In particular, the optimal information acquisition point is the same, regardless of the other bidders' actions. This makes it natural to focus on symmetric, undominated equilibria, as in the Vickrey auction. An existence theorem for such a class of equilibria is presented. The paper also presents some results and numerical simulations that compare this sequential auction with the one-shot auction. 8equential auctions typically yield more expected revenue for the seller than their one-shot counterparts. 80 the possibility of mid-auction information acquisition can provide an explanation for why sequential procedures are more often adopted.
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    Optimal provision of implicit and explicit incentives in asset management contracts
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia., 2005-07-15) Yoshima, Samy Osamu Abud
    This paper investigates the importance of the fiow of funds as an implicit incetive provided by investors to portfolio managers in a two-period relationship. We show that the fiow of funds is a powerful incentive in an asset management contract. We build a binomial moral hazard model to explain the main trade-ofIs in the relationship between fiow, fees and performance. The main assumption is that efIort depend' on the combination of implicit and explicit incentives while the probability distrioutioll function of returns depends on efIort. In the case of full commitment, the investor's relevant trade-ofI is to give up expected return in the second period vis-à-vis to induce efIort in the first período The more concerned the investor is with today's payoff. the more willing he will be to give up expected return in the following periods. That is. in the second period, the investor penalizes observed low returns by withdrawing resources from non-performing portfolio managers. Besides, he pays performance fee when the observed excess return is positive. When commitment is not a plausible hypothesis, we consider that the investor also learns some symmetríc and imperfect information about the ability of the manager to generate positive excess returno In this case, observed returns reveal ability as well as efIort choices exerted by the portfolio manager. We show that implicit incentives can explain the fiow-performance relationship and, conversely, endogenous expected return determines incentives provision and define their optimal leveIs. We provide a numerical solution in Matlab that characterize these results.
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    Wage inequality and trade liberalization : evidence from Argentina
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia., 2000-11) Sanguinetti, Pablo
    Wage inequality has increased substantially in Argentina during the nineties. At the same time during this decade Argentina has gone through a rapid and deep process of trade liberalization. In this paper we try to associate both phenomena. In particular, we attempt to answer the following question: Did trade liberalization play any role in shaping the argentine wage structure during the period studied? Specifically, we test whether those sectors where import penetration deepened are also the sectors where, ceteris paribus, a higher increase in wage inequality has taken place. We fmd evidence that supports this hypothesis.
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    Do police reduce crime? Estimates using the allocation of police forces after a terrorist attack
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia., 2003-05-29) Schargrodsky, Ernesto; Di Tella, Rafael
    An important challenge in the crime literature is to isolate causal effects of police on crime. Following a terrorist attack on the main Jewish center in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 1994, all Jewish institutions (including schools, synagogues, and clubs) were given 24-hour police protection. Thus, this hideous event induced a geographical allocation of police forces that can be presumed to be exogenous in a crime regression. Using data on the location of car thefts before and after the terrorist attack, we find a large deterrent effect of observable police presence on crime. The effect is local, with little or no appreciable impact outside the narrow area in which the police are deployed.
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    Inflation targeting, credibility and coordination aspects
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia., 2007-02-09) Santos, Rafael Chaves; Araújo, Aloísio Pessoa de
    There are plenty of economic studies pointing out some requirements, like the inexistence of fiscal dominance, for inflation targeting framework be implemented in successful (credible) way. Essays on how public targets could be used in the absence of such requirements are unusual. In this papel' we appraise how central banks could use inflation targeting before soundness economic fundamentaIs have been achieved. First, based on concise framework, where confidence crises and imperfect information are neglected, we conclude that less ambitious (greater) target for inflation increases the credibility in the precommitment. Optimal target is higher than the one obtained using the Cukierman-Liviatan [7] model, where increasing credibility effect is not considered. Second, extending the model to make confidence crises possible, multiple equilibria solutions becomes possible too. In this case, to set greater targets for inflation may stimulate confidence crises and reduce the policymaker credibility. On the other hand, multiple (bad) equilibria may be avoided. The optimal target depends on the likelihood of each equilibrium be selected. Finally, when perturbing common knowledge uniqueness is restored even considering confidence crises, as in Morris-Shin[ 14]. The first result, i.e. less ambitious target for inflation increases credibility in precommitment, is also recovered. Adding a precise public signal, cOOl'dinated self-fulfilling actions and equilibrium multiplicity may still exist for some lack of common knowledge (as in Angeleto and Weming[l]). In this case, to set greater targets for inflation may stimulate confidence crisis again, reducing the policymaker credibility. From another aspect, multiple (bad) equilibria may be avoided. Optimal policy prescriptions depend on the likelihood of each equilibrium be selected. Results also indicate that more precise public information may open the door for bad equilibrium, contrary to the conventional wisdom that more central oank transparency is always good when considering inflation targeting framework.
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    Using irregularly spaced returns to estimate multi-factor models : application to Brazilian equity data
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2002) Souza, Leonardo Rocha; Veiga, Alvaro
    Multi-factor models constitute a use fui tool to explain cross-sectional covariance in equities retums. We propose in this paper the use of irregularly spaced returns in the multi-factor model estimation and provide an empirical example with the 389 most liquid equities in the Brazilian Market. The market index shows itself significant to explain equity returns while the US$/Brazilian Real exchange rate and the Brazilian standard interest rate does not. This example shows the usefulness of the estimation method in further using the model to fill in missing values and to provide intervaI forecasts.
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    The power of the purse : what do the data say on US federal budget allocation to the states?
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2004-08-13) Testa, Cecilia
    This paper provides new evidence on the determinants of the allocation of the US federal budget to the states and tests the capability of congressional, electoral and partisan theories to explain such allocation. We find that socio-economic characteristics are important explanatory variables but are not sufficient to explain the disparities in the distribution of federal monies. First, prestige committee membership is not conducive to pork-barrelling. We do not find any evidence that marginal states receive more funding; on the opposite, safe states tend to be rewarded. Also, states that are historically 'swing' in presidential elections tend to receive more funds. Finally, we find strong evidence supporting partisan theories of budget allocation. States whose governor has the same political affiliation of the President receive more federal funds; while states whose representatives belong to a majority opposing the president party receive less funds.
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    Do dividends signal more earnings? a theoretical analysis
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2003-02) Tsuchida, Marcos H.; Araújo, Aloísio Pessoa de; Moreira, Humberto Ataíde
    The signaling models have contributed to the literature of corporate finance by the formalization of 'the informational content of dividends hypothesis'. However, these models are under criticism of empirical works, as weak evidences were found supporting one of the main predictions: the positive relation between changes in dividends and changes in earnings. We claim that the failure to verify this prediction does not invalidate the signaling approach. The mo deIs developed up to now assume or derive utility functions with the single-crossing property. We show that signaling is possible in the absence of this property and, in this case, changes in dividend and changes in earnings can be positively or negatively related.
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    Wealth composition, endogenous fertility and the dynamics of income inequality
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2002-11-14) Veloso, Fernando A.
    This paper analyzes how differences in the composition of wealth between human and physical capital among families affect fertility choices. These in tum influence the dynamics of wealth and income inequality across generations through a tradeoffbetween quantity and quality of children. Wealth composition affects fertility because physical capital has only a wealth effect on number of children, whereas human capital increases the time cost of child-rearing in addition to the wealth effect. I construct a model combining endogenous fertility with borrowing constraints in human capital investments, in which weaIth composition is determined endogenously. The model is calibrated to the PNAD, a Brazilian household survey, and the main findings of the paper can be summarized as follows. First, the model implies that the crosssection relationship between fertility and wealth typically displays a U-shaped pattem, reflecting differences in wealth composition between poor and rich families. Also, the quantity-quality tradeoff implies a concave cross-section relationship between investments per child and wealth. Second, as the economy develops and families overcome their bOlTowing constraints, the negative effect of weaIth on fertility becomes smaller, and persistence of inequality declines accordingly. The empirical evidence presented in this paper is consistent with both implications .
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    Equivalência ricardiana: evidência empírica para o caso do Brasil
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2006-02-17) Vieira, Bruno Ferreira
    Este trabalho tem por objetivo principal avaliar a existência de equivalência ricardiana no Brasil. Para isto, empregam-se três metodologias distintas. Inicialmente, com base no modelo de Enders e Lee (1990), utilizam-se regressões do tipo VAR e VEC e decomposição de variância para avaliar de que forma consumo e exportações líquidas reagem a variações não-antecipadas da dívida do setor público, mantidos constantes os gastos do governo. Em seguida, com base no mesmo modelo teórico, estimam-se parâmetros relativos à função consumo e testam-se as restrições de sobre-identificação associadas à técnica de MGM. Por último, efetuam-se testes relativos à restrição de liquidez com base no modelo de consumidores restritos de Campbell e Mankiw (1989). Embora alguns dos resultados sejam inconclusos, particularmente quando se utilizam os dois primeiros métodos de investigação (análise de variância e teste das restrições de sobre-identificação), de modo geral concluímos pela não-validade da hipótese para o Brasil. Teoricamente, isto é compatível com o fato de se ter uma parcela substancial de consumidores brasileiros restritos na obtenção de crédito (a exemplo do que já haviam também concluído Reis, Issler, Blanco e Carvalho (1998) e Issler e Rocha (2000) e do que também concluímos na última seção.
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    Emancipações municipais em Minas Gerais: estimativas de seus impactos sociais
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2007-02-02) Wanderley, Claudio Burian
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    Transferências federativas e potência dos contratos: avaliação da lei Robin Hood
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2005-06-17) Wanderley, Claudio Burian
    Buscando melhorar as condições de vida dos municípios mineiros, o governo estadual mineiro instituiu, em 1995, a lei 12.040, conhecida como Lei Robin Hood. Esta permitia que 25% dos recursos de ICMS a serem distribuídos aos municípios mineiros se dessem sobre resultados observáveis em diversas áreas tais como saúde, educação, conservação ecológica, entre outras. Ou seja, instituia, em relação a estas transferências, um contrato de alto poder com os municípios relacionados às políticas públicas implementadas. O estudo destas transferências (relativas à educação e saúde) mostrou um forte impacto positivo na primeira (e inexistente na segunda). Dada a relativa escassez deste tipo de contrato em transferências federativas, este resultado aponta a necessidade de utilização de instrumentos de maior poder nas relações federativas, buscando incrementar as condições de vida locais.
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    Debt and default in a growth model
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia., 2006-08-11) Guimarães, Bernardo de Vasconcellos
    This paper presents a small open economy model with capital accumulation and without commitment to repay debt. The optimal debt contract specifies debt relief following bad shocks and debt increase following good shocks and brings first order benefits if the country's borrowing constraint is binding. Countries with less capital (with higher marginal productivity of capital) have a higher debt-GDP ratio, are more likely to default on uncontingent bonds, require higher debt relief after bad shocks and pay a higher spread over treasury. Debt relief prescribed by the optimal contract following the interest rate hikes of 1980-81 is more than half of the debt forgiveness obtained by the main Latin American countries through the Brady agreements.
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    Aggregate vs disaggregate data analysis: a paradox in the estimation of money demand function of Japan under the low interest rate policy
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2002-03-13) Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Fujiki, Hiroshi
    We investigate the issue of whether there was a stable money demand function for Japan in 1990's using both aggregate and disaggregate time series data. The aggregate data appears to support the contention that there was no stable money demand function. The disaggregate data shows that there was a stable money demand function. Neither was there any indication of the presence of liquidity trapo Possible sources of discrepancy are explored and the diametrically opposite results between the aggregate and disaggregate analysis are attributed to the neglected heterogeneity among micro units. We also conduct simulation analysis to show that when heterogeneity among micro units is present. The prediction of aggregate outcomes, using aggregate data is less accurate than the prediction based on micro equations. Moreover. policy evaluation based on aggregate data can be grossly misleading.
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    Formation of social capital in Eastern Europe: explaining the gap vis-à-vis developed countries
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2004-06-25) Gërxhani, Klarita; Fidrmuc, Jan
    Recent Eurobarometer survey data are used to document and explain the leveI of social capital in thirteen new members and fifteen current members of the European Union. Social capital in Eastern Europe - measured by participation in clubs and organization, intensity of networks or altruistic behavior - lags behind that in developed countries. The differences in individual-leveI determinants cannot fully account for the gap at the aggregate leveI. Once we also include aggregate measures of economic development and quality of institutions, the gap disappears. This implies that the EU enlargement will contribute to a convergence in social capital, assuming that it contributes to the economic and institutional development of Eastern European countries. A necessary condition is that both, formal and informal institutions and their interaction should be regarded in this process.
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    Public debt management, monetary policy and financial institutions
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2002-05-28) Garcia, Márcio Gomes Pinto
    Despite the large size of the Brazilian debt market, as well the large diversity of its bonds, the picture that emerges is of a market that has not yet completed its transition from the role it performed during the megainflation years, namely that of providing a liquid asset that provided positive real returns. This unfinished transition is currently placing the market under severe stress, as fears of a possible default from the next administration grow larger. This paper analyzes several aspects pertaining to the management of the domestic public debt. The causes for the extremely large and fast growth ofthe domestic public debt during the seven-year period that President Cardoso are discussed in Section 2. Section 3 computes Value at Risk and Cash Flow at Risk measures for the domestic public debt. The rollover risk is introduced in a mean-variance framework in Section 4. Section 5 discusses a few issues pertaining to the overlap between debt management and monetary policy. Finally, Section 6 wraps up with policy discussion and policy recommendations.
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    The impact of property rights and its limits
    (Fundação Getulio Vargas. Escola de Pós-graduação em Economia, 2003-11-05) Galiani, Sebastian
    The empirical evaluation of the effect of land property rights typically suffers from selection problems. The allocation of property rights across households is usually not random but based on wealth, family characteristics, political clientelism, or other mechanisms built on differences between the groups that acquire property rights and the groups that do not. In this paper, we address this selection concern exploiting a natural experiment in the allocation of property rights. Twenty years ago, a homogenous group of squatters occupied a piece of privately owned land in a suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. When the Congress passed an expropriation law transferring the land from the former owners to the squatters, some of the former owners surrendered the land (and received a compensation), while others decide to sue in the slow Argentine courts. These different decisions by the former owners generated an allocation of property rights that is exogenous to the characteristics of the squatters. We take advantage of this natural experiment to evaluate the effect of the allocation of urban land property rights. Our preliminary results show significant effects on housing investment, household size, and school attrition. Contradicting De Soto's hypotheses, we found nonsignificant effects on labor income and access to credit markets.