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    What should civilians know about defense? the civil-military relations perspective on information disclosure
    (2016) Rodrigues, Karina Furtado
    Scholars have debated the lack of incentives for civilians to specialize in defense topics in Latin America. Besides the absence of major conflicts in the region, they argue that politicians have no electoral benefits from raising this flag in their campaigns. However, between affirming that civilians do not need to know much about it or should be highly involved, essential questions have been forgotten: what should civilians know about defense? When civilians want to know, can they? The defense marketplace of ideas is perfect only theoretically. In reality, there might be civilian informational demands that are simply ignored, and at the same time, requests of disclosure that could harm important policies. Using Stepan's distinction between state, political society and civil society, this paper debates the types and depth of transparency required for each group of civilians to enhance and exert oversight of (1) civilian control, (2) military effectiveness, and (3) military efficacy.
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    O Congresso Nacional, as relações civis-militares e a política de defesa no Brasil (1999-2014)
    (2016) Madruga, Florian Augusto de Abreu Coutinho; Amorim Neto, Octavio
    Since the creation of a civilian-led Ministry of Defense in Brazil in 1999, the political power of the Armed Forces has been waning. However, the scholarly literature does not consider the country’s legislative branch to have been relevant in democratizing civil-military relations. Yet, this view needs to be revisited in light of recent developments. Since 2008 Brazil implemented a series of unprecedented actions as regards military politics and defense policymaking: (1) the publication of the National Strategy of Defense in 2008, drafted by both civilians and the military, which was complemented in 2012 by the publication of the country’s first White Paper on National Defense; (2) the enactment of the New Defense Law in 2010, which strengthens the role of the defense minister in the conduct of defense policy; (3) the promulgation of the Freedom of Information Law in 2011; (4) the enactment of laws providing subsidies for the defense industry in 2012; and (5) the publication of the final report on human rights violations committed during the 1964-1985 military regime by the National Truth Committee in 2014. The main goal of this paper is to assess to what extent such momentous changes were affected by legislative preferences and activities. To do so, we will analyze all bills of law and information requests on defense matters initiated by deputies and senators in 1999-2014.