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    The UK’s Midata and Open Banking programmes: a case study of data portability and interoperability requirements
    (2022-10-27) Brown, Ian
    This case study uses document and market outcomes analysis of the UK’s tech-nology-focused self-regulatory Midata and co-regulatory Open Banking programmes. It examines how effectively these voluntary and regulator-overseen industry-led actions increased competition and created better functioning, more innovative and diverse markets for personal accounts and small business banking in the UK. It focuses on the use of two technical mechanisms to increase competition: data portability, and interoperability. These programmes went further than the EU’s second Payment Services Directive, including a co-regulatory obligation for the nine largest retail and small business banks to agree a common technical interface and standards for security, user experience, and other areas identified as important to customers, overseen by a trustee appointed by the Competition & Markets Authority (CMA). We explore how these requirements evolved from an ineffective voluntary portability regime to in-depth interoperability obligations imposed by the CMA, which have enabled hundreds of firms to create a thriving UK “fintech” market of complementary financial services.
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    Aborto e Congresso Nacional: uma análise crítica do cenário legislativo
    (2017) Sganzerla, Rogério Barros
    Usually, when the abortion issue is raised in any debate, its criminalization (or not) becomes the main point of discussion. However, there are issues that go beyond the criminal aspect, such as family planning and abortion intervention, information and prevention public policies of abortion. In order to understand how the House of Representatives and the Senate address this problem, there was an empirical analysis of the bills on abortion. After the data analysis and systematization, it was allowed to see that the Congress has some important guidelines on abortion: (i) is an issue with recent discussion; (ii) the main focus of the debate is the criminal aspect of abortion (legalization or criminalization); (iii) the projects are carried over and deliberated mainly on commissions and not in plenary; and (iv) there is a tendency to maintain the current status quo of abortion and only twenty-five (25) bills of one percent of the total, twenty-nine (129), address specific public policies for women. It was found that only one project was transformed into ordinary law and even then, intending to remove a specific expression of Article 20 of the Criminal Misdemeanor Law
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    O papel da Presidência nas instituições do Brasil para o futuro do aborto
    (2017) Sganzerla, Rogério Barros
    O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar os temas da masculinidade, aborto e sexualidade a partir do Congresso Nacional e do Supremo Tribunal Federal do Brasil. O intuito é estudar (quantitativamente e qualitativamente) a estrutura e as decisões provenientes do Congresso Nacional e do Supremo Tribunal do Brasil, seja através de projetos de lei, seja através de acórdãos, ou mesmo através de audiências públicas, de modo a entender as masculinidades presentes nessas discussões e também repensar as suas práticas para o futuro do aborto no Brasil.
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    The Intermediary Conundrum: cyber-regulators, cyber-police or both?
    (2017) Belli, Luca; Sappa, Cristiana
    The design of intermediary liability regimes has crucial impact on Internet users’ capability to fully enjoy their human rights. When intermediary are held responsible for their users’ activities, the foreseeable consequence is an increase on the types and granularity of restrictions that private entities will implement to escape liability. This article argues that, besides jeopardizing users’ rights, this situation can increase costs for both intermediaries and new entrants, while transforming intermediaries in cyber-regulators and cyber-police. As points of control of networks, platforms and a variety of cyberspaces, intermediaries have the possibility to regulate effectively the behavior of users through their terms of service and to enforce such private ordering in an autonomous fashion, through a number of technical measures. In this regard, intermediaries undertake a true role of private regulators, contractually regulating the content and applications that users are allowed to access and share as well as the ways in which their personal data can be collected and processed. Furthermore, intermediaries are regularly asked by public actors to take active steps in order to enforce national legislation, spanning from copyright infringement to privacy, from illegal hate speech to child pornography. The requests for banning specific forms of expression or limiting their circulation may be in the name of the personality rights, such as the reputation of individuals or companies, but also privacy, personal data protection, or, more frequently, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). The implementation of such requests may occur by imposing ex ante filters or blocking techniques, aimed at regulating the flow of information, or by imposing ex post removals of data, notably through notice-and-takedown mechanisms. Crucially, such mechanisms may be imbalanced, protecting specific interests while simultaneously discouraging user expression, participation and innovation, and raising costs for private economic initiatives, thus limiting the fundamental freedom of conducting a business. This work adopts a critical approach to analyze the role that many Internet intermediaries have undertaken as cyber-regulators and cyber-police. Subsequently, it discusses the current legal framework on intermediary liability, with particular regard to the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.
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    Private ordering and the rise of terms of service as cyber-regulation
    (2016-12-28) Belli, Luca; Venturini, Jamila
    Online communications and activities require the intermediation of numerous private entities that unilaterally define and implement their terms of service (ToS). The substantive provisions set in the ToS regulate the relationships between intermediaries and users with a binding force that may be even stronger than the one exercised by the law. Notably, we stress that internet intermediaries privately enforce their contractual regulation by shaping the architecture of the networks and platforms under their control. Such regulation and implementation do not need to rely on “traditional” public law-enforcement mechanisms and may apply in a transnational fashion. This paper argues that internet governance is witnessing the increasing centralisation of power in the hands of internet intermediaries defining private orderings. While acknowledging that ToS are an efficient and well-suited instrument to regulate the online world, we claim that ToS unilaterally impose rules, despite being presented as voluntarily accepted by the involved parties through the expression of free and informed consent. Based on empirical research, we highlight that ToS and their private implementation affect internet users’ capability to enjoy their human rights, with particular regard to freedom of expression (and innovation), the right to privacy and to due process. Lastly, we put forward some recommendations on internet intermediaries’ compliance with human rights standards.
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    Network Neutrality: An Empirical Approach to Legal Interoperability
    (TPRC 43: The 43rd Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy Paper, 2015-03-31) Belli, Luca; Foditsch, Nathalia
    The Internet is grounded on an open and interoperable architecture, giving rise to a quintessentially transnational environment. This global network of networks is, however, in natural tension with an international legal system based on mutually excluding legal frameworks, which have the potential to fragment the Internet, creating separated national intranets and conflicting cyberspaces. It seems important, therefore, to encourage the development of rules that can be used across jurisdictions, thus fostering the compatibility of the legal systems penetrated by the Internet and the internet economy. Promoting a 'legal interoperable' environment seems indeed an instrumental step to achieving a better-functioning Internet ecosystem, in which new technologies can spur, and in which cultural exchange is promoted. Advancing international legal interoperability of issues of systemic importance is not an easy task, but one way to start address this challenge is analysing existing initiatives aimed at producing regulatory models addressing specific issues. One particular topic that lends itself well to the analysis of the benefits and potential developments of legal interoperability is net neutrality. Indeed, it has been addressed by several jurisdictions, each using a specific approach. At the same time, a net neutrality regulatory model framework has already been elaborated and has inspired more than one organisation, such as the European Parliament and the Council of Europe. The principle is a good example of the importance of legal interoperability as it plays an instrumental function in promoting and protecting the free flow of information and the distributed nature of the Internet. Whereas it might be seen as a domestic matter, exclusively impinging upon how Internet traffic is managed at the national level, the level of protection of network neutrality determines immediate consequences on the Internet users’ capability to freely seek, impart and receive information regardless of frontier. For this reason, common tools defining shared principles or providing regulatory indications should be welcome in order to foster legal interoperability. This paper provides a brief analysis of the concept of interoperability and its potential transposition from the technical to the regulatory level. It also examines the relevance of network neutrality in order to maintain the original interoperable architecture of the Internet. After having identified common elements within the existing net neutrality frameworks, the paper suggests common principles that may be used to develop future legally-interoperable approaches, avoiding fragmentation and fostering legal certainty while diminishing transaction costs for businesses.
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    The Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance (NETmundial)
    (2015-08-16) Maciel, Marília Ferreira; Zingales, Nicolo; Fink, Daniel Roberto
    This case study examines NETmundial, the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance, which was held in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 23 and 24 of 2014. The meeting was convened by 1net, a coalition of This case study examines NETmundial, the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance, which was held in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 23 and 24 of 2014. The meeting was convened by 1net, a coalition of stakeholder groups involved in Internet governance discussions, in partnership with the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (CGI.br), in response to revelations of mass surveillance of communications by the United States. It sought to develop a set of universally acceptable Internet governance principles as well as a way forward for the evolution of the Internet governance system, which together could serve as a framework for the governance and use of the Internet. It convened 930 participants from 110 different countries, representing civil society, the private sector, academia, the technical community, governments and intergovernmental organizations, as well as over 1000 remote participants from 23 countries around the globe. It also employed a content contribution platform that sought to crowd source inputs from stakeholders for the production of the outcome document. The meeting served as a demonstration of the multistakeholder process in action: in the production of the outcome document, stakeholders with a diverse range of backgrounds and interests collectively negotiated the inclusion or exclusion of highly sensitive and complex issues. While the process of achieving rough consensus involved sometimes messy debates and there were procedural imperfections, the case is informative for its structured production of bottom-up multistakeholder outcomes.groups involved in Internet governance discussions, in partnership with the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (CGI.br), in response to revelations of mass surveillance of communications by the United States. It sought to develop a set of universally acceptable Internet governance principles as well as a way forward for the evolution of the Internet governance system, which together could serve as a framework for the governance and use of the Internet. It convened 930 participants from 110 different countries, representing civil society, the private sector, academia, the technical community, governments and intergovernmental organizations, as well as over 1000 remote participants from 23 countries around the globe. It also employed a content contribution platform that sought to crowd source inputs from stakeholders for the production of the outcome document. The meeting served as a demonstration of the multistakeholder process in action: in the production of the outcome document, stakeholders with a diverse range of backgrounds and interests collectively negotiated the inclusion or exclusion of highly sensitive and complex issues. While the process of achieving rough consensus involved sometimes messy debates and there were procedural imperfections, the case is informative for its structured production of bottom-up multistakeholder outcomes.
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    Cyber-security, privacy and trust: trends in the Latin American and Caribbean region and the way forward
    (Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, 2016) Maciel, Marília Ferreira; Foditsch, Nathalia; Belli, Luca; Castellon, Nicolas
    The goals of cybersecurity strategies are usually twofold: i) To protect society against cyber threats; and ii) to foster economic and social prosperity, in a context in which key activities are based on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). In order to fully achieve these goals, national cybersecurity strategies should be harmonized with fundamental values and rights, such as privacy, freedom of expression and due process, as well as with key technical principles that have allowed innovation on the Internet, such as openness, universality and interoperability.1 The respect for human rights and these architectural principles is key to strengthening trust and fostering economic growth.
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    Creating a global internet public space: is there a way forward?
    (2014-08) Maciel, Marília Ferreira
    Why is there such a pressing effort to find alternative modes, globally, to fashion internet policy? One must start with a simple observation: states have been considered the main political actors in international politics. Their borders gave origin to the internal/ external binomial and to the division between domestic and foreign policy. The domestic playing field would be the space where history, identity and a community of destiny could flourish, allowing individuals to engage in a public sphere as equal citizens to work to define common goals and the best way to pursue them. This space was separated from the external arena, traditionally characterized by anarchy, potential conflict and insecurity.
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    Os degraus da implementação efetiva no Brasil: como as regulamentações locais de acesso à informação impactam na implementação de portais de dados abertos e transparência
    (2015 Open Data Research Symposium, 2015-05-27) Burle, Caroline; Venturini, Jamila; Barros, Marina; Córdova, Yasodara
    This paper has the objective to outline a general scenario of the Brazilian Information Act (LAI), of November 18th, 2011, setting in its text parameters that lead to the open data practice. After this analysis we present a qualitative research that shows data about the existence or not of regulation as an instrument specified in the first degree required to form a sustainable chain of open government data. The legislative provision of minimum standards for the establishment of data consists of a first step for effective implementation for of the right to information today. Nevertheless, regarding this first step, however much the LAI represents an effort to incorporate some of the principles of open data, it is not fully effective in most of the analyzed regulations - either because there is no specification on the obligations relating to the active transparency, either because there are only some principles highlighted and others are ignored. The absence of explicit obligations in this sense can lead to failures in the implementation of transparency portals and, consequently, in effecting the right of access to information of Brazilian citizens, as it restricts the possibility of interaction and ownership of information accessed. Michener (2014) says 'when it comes to public information, open data favor transparency by allowing citizens to access, reuse and freely share public information'. Therefore, no matter how open data movement and right of access have origins, focuses and different strategies historically, the advancement of digital technologies makes these two approaches intersect and makes open data increasingly relevant to the exercise of the right of access. This paper focused exclusively in what we call the first step for effective implementation. We seek with this start a discussion on the topic, which seems of paramount importance today. It would be necessary, however, to analyze how these standards are reflected in Transparency Portals, in each government agency and in different regions of the country, as well as the receipt of information by Brazilian citizens, what can be research object in future papers.
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    Protecting user privacy in the Cloud: an analysis of terms of service
    (European Journal of Law and Technology, 2015) Stylianou, Konstantinos; Venturini, Jamila; Zingales, Nicolo
    We present the results of a study that collected, compared and analyzed the terms and conditions of a number of cloud services vis-a-vis privacy and data protection. First, we assembled a list of factors that comprehensively capture cloud companies' treatment of user data with regard to privacy and data protection; then, we assessed how various cloud services of different types protect their users in the collection, retention, and use of their data, as well as in the disclosure to law enforcement authorities. This commentary provides comparative and aggregate analysis of the results.
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    O conflito constitucional existente entre o direito de autor, direito cultural e acesso à informação
    (Instituto de Filosofia e Teologia, 2013-06) Freitas, Bruna Castanheira de; Santos, Nivaldo dos
    O conflito existente entre o direito do autor, direitos culturais e acesso à informação assolam inúmeros debates jurídicos no país. Todos esses são direitos com amparo constitucional que encontram na realidade social obstáculos para serem conciliados. O advento da internet permitiu que obras artísticas fossem distribuídas democraticamente ao redor do mundo, rompendo com a maneira tradicional de distribuir cultura e informação, antes proporcionadas, principalmente, pelo meio tradicional da compra. Faz-se necessário repensar esses institutos e como conciliá¬-los para beneficiar a coletividade.
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    A regulamentação de proteção de dados pessoais no Brasil e na Europa: uma análise comparativa
    (3º Simpósio Internacional LAVITS: Vigilância, Tecnopolíticas, Territórios, 2015-05) Louzada, Luiza; Venturini, Jamila
    O tema da proteção de dados pessoais ganhou maior destaque nos últimos anos devido, em grande medida, ao crescimento dos fluxos de informação que ocorrem em consequência do avanço das tecnologias. Na nova realidade em que uma parcela expressiva das atividades humanas pode ser traduzida em dados, o processamento desses fluxos de informação adquire importância tanto para o setor público como para o privado. No que diz respeito ao mundo online, uma quantidade de informações e registros é gerada - e potencialmente coletada, armazenada e compartilhada - a cada interação. Nesse contexto, surgem novos desafios regulatórios e se faz urgente atualizar os mecanismos de controle do cidadão sobre seus dados pessoais e a proteção de sua privacidade. O presente artigo apresenta um breve panorama da regulamentação de dados pessoais no Brasil e na Europa traçando paralelos entre os dois processos regulatórios e destacando os principais desafios em aberto.
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    Privacy and surveillance in the digital age: a comparative study of the Brazilian and German legal frameworks
    (2015-11) Dahlmann, Anja; Venturini, Jamila; Dickow, Marcel; Maciel, Marília Ferreira
    This briefing is an input to the discussions that will take place in the session 'Privacy under mass surveillance: a multi-stakeholder international challenge' to be held on November 9th in João Pessoa, Brazil, during the 'Day Zero' of the Internet Governance Forum. This document is one of the outputs of the first phase of the project 'Privacy in the digital age: fostering the implementation of the bilateral German-Brazilian strategy in response to massive data collection', jointly developed by the Center for Technology and Society of the Rio de Janeiro Law School of the Getulio Vargas Foundation and the German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), with the support of FGV. The project Privacy in the Digital Age seeks to identify legal, political, technical, and economic incentives for the implementation of resolution 168/67 on Privacy in the Digital Age, proposed by Germany and Brazil, and approved by the United Nations General Assembly and to identify other potential areas of collaboration between Germany and Brazil in the field of Internet Governance.
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    Dando ouvidos aos dispositivos: como resolver controvérsias em um debate sobre cidades inteligentes?
    (II Encontro Internacional de Tecnologia, Comunicação e Ciência Cognitiva, 2015-10-21) Francisco, Pedro Augusto P.
    Neste breve artigo, procuro analisar um workshop de pesquisa sobre o tema das 'Cidades Inteligentes', ou smart cities, no qual estive presente. Nessa análise, mostro como os conceitos de 'cidade inteligente' e 'big data' são construídos de modo distinto pelos dois grupos de pessoas presentes no evento, que classifico como 'otimizadores' e 'reguladores'. Essas diferentes formas de se enxergar os dispositivos em questão levam a uma série de controvérsias. Em um primeiro momento, procuro enquadrar o modo como algumas das controvérsias aparecem dentro do marco teórico da Construção Social da Tecnologia (SCOT). Posteriormente, pretendo mostrar que as controvérsias que apareceram ao longo do evento não foram solucionadas – e dificilmente serão, num futuro próximo – enquanto não se optar por um modelo analítico tal como a Teoria Ator-Rede, que dá ouvidos para um grupo ignorado naquelas discussões: os dispositivos empregados na construção do conceito de 'Cidade Inteligente'.
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    Reformando a lei de direitos autorais: desafios para o novo governo na área da cultura
    (Revista Eletrônica de Comunicação, Informação & Inovação em Saúde, 2015) Reia, Jhessica; Mizukami, Pedro Nicoletti
    O processo de reforma da lei de direitos autorais brasileira (Lei 9.610/98) teve início em 2007, durante a gestão de Gilberto Gil no Ministério da Cultura, a partir do Fórum Nacional de Direito Autoral, do debate público e da consulta online do anteprojeto de modernização da lei. Desde então, o país presenciou movimentos de avanço e estagnação da reforma, esperando-se que com a nomeação de Juca Ferreira para o Ministério da Cultura em 2015, a reforma da lei entre novamente em pauta. Contudo, existem diversos desafios nesse percurso que serão brevemente analisados neste artigo.
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    Direitos autorais como comércio internacional: desafios políticos
    (2014-07-24) Valente, Mariana Giorgetti
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    Creative Commons, mídia e as transformações recentes do direito da propriedade intelectual
    (FGV EDESP, 2005-05) Lemos, Ronaldo
    O presente artigo busca apresentar as licenças gerais públicas desenvolvidas no seio do projeto Creative Commons, contextualizando a razão de ser de regimes alternativos de licenciamento de direitos autorais, em razão das mudanças tecnológicas por que tem passado a comunidade internacional quanto ao tráfego, compartilhamento e utilização de informação.
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    Copyleft , software livre e Creative Commons: a nova feição dos direitos autorais e as obras colaborativas
    (2009-09-17) Lemos, Ronaldo; Branco, Sérgio
    Como se sabe, a lei brasileira de direitos autorais, Lei 9.610/98 (doravante designada LDA), é tida pelos especialistas no assunto como uma das mais restritivas de todo o mundo. Ao proibir a cópia integral de obra alheia, condutas que se afiguram corriqueiras no mundo contemporâneo são, a rigor, contrárias à lei. Por exemplo, diante dos termos estritos da LDA, quando uma pessoa adquire um CD numa loja, não pode copiar o conteúdo do CD para seu iPod, o que configura proibição incoerente com o mundo em que vivemos e com as facilidades da tecnologia digital. Dentro de um sistema jurídico que tem a Constituição Federal como filtro interpretativo (como é o nosso caso, no Brasil), é indispensável que as leis infraconstitucionais passem pelas lentes da Constituição. No entanto, nem sempre a reinterpretação das leis infraconstitucionais a partir do prisma constitucional será suficiente para aferir a legitimidade do uso de obras de terceiros, diante dos termos rígidos da LDA. É necessário buscar novos mecanismos para dar segurança jurídica a quem queira se valer de obras alheias. Como exemplo desses mecanismos, podemos mencionar as licenças públicas. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar soluções que, ainda que incipientes se comparadas à estrutura secular e insatisfatória dos princípios legais do direito autoral vigente, encontram-se já ao alcance de todos e abrangem todos os tipos de obras de arte, indistintamente.
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    Propriedade intelectual e governança da Internet
    (2009-06-16) Mizukami, Pedro Nicoletti; Souza, Carlos Affonso Pereira de
    Valendo-se da oportunidade representada pela realização no Rio de Janeiro do IGF (Internet Governance Forum) nos dias 12 a 15 de novembro, de 2007, o presente artigo busca investigar como o debate sobre a propriedade intelectual tem sido conduzido nos fóruns de discussão sobre governança da Internet. Embora atenção seja conferida à análise que o tema da propriedade intelectual recebeu no IGF-Rio, as conclusões apresentadas têm por escopo indicar um cenário mais abrangente, no qual propriedade intelectual é vista como um tópico fundamental para a construção de um ambiente aberto, democrático e plural de regulação da rede.