O desempenho das empresas brasileiras: estrutura de variância e o efeito cadeia de suprimentos
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The mechanisms leading to superior performance and the factors that explain them are subjects of interest to many areas in business research. The variance decomposition of performance has been used for such purposes, initially trying to understand the contribution of idiosyncratic organizational factors (firm effect) and factors related to the economic sector (industry effect); more recently other factors have gained interest, such as the contributions of corporation and country to firm performance. This doctoral thesis has introduced a new factor in studies of variance decomposition of performance: the supply chain effect, quantifying the influence of affiliation to a given supply chain to firm performance. Another contribution of this thesis is a comprehensive panorama of the structure of performance variance in Brazil, expanding previous research in terms of sample size, a more suitable method of analysis (multilevel or hierarchical linear models) and performance dimensions used. The empirical analysis considered indicators of profit and growth, with the broader sample containing 592,905 observations from 77,468 Brazilian firms and 485 industries, in a period of 10 years. Data were obtained from annual structural economic surveys conducted by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Three-levels hierarchical linear models, with observations of performance, firms and industries, showed that the firm effect accounts for the greatest portion of explained variance; these models also pointed to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian context, such as the differences in the structure of variance when the different sectors are analyzed separately, mainly in terms of intensity of the industry effect – more relevant, for example, for service firms than for firms from other industries – and the differences in the structure of variance for the various regions of Brazil, being firms from the North, Northeast and Midwest regions more dependent on industry’s contribution to their performance than firms from the South and Southeast. With the introduction of a fourth level – the supply chain – to the model, it was found that the magnitude of the supply chain effect reached 15% to 25% of the explained variability, measured by the square root of the variance components, representing about 50% to 90% of the industry effect magnitude. Beyond highlighting the importance of supply chain management, the findings suggest a new understanding of the industry effect, as they indicate that the benefits traditionally attributed to the industry are partly resulting from the firm affiliation to a supply chain, and not only from the similarity of activities it shares with other firms in the same industry.