A psicologia comunitária como agente de transformações sociais

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Seminério, Franco Lo Presti
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In the last decades there have been, in what concerns Psychology, a change in approaching from the intrapsychic model to a social point of view, related to the human behavior. One of the essencial proposals of the new movement consists in declaring that the emotional disorders, are rooted in the malfunctioning of the basic sources of social support. It was under these circunstances that in 1965 the Communitarian Psychology came about. It is characterized by the search for new paradigms which are based, mainly, on the preventive conception of adjustment and health, and on the ecological model. This work was also intended to offer as an alternative model for the Communitarian Psychology, the social aprenticeship. From this point of view, that is, the social aprentticeship, the behaviors considered 'disadjusted' are seen not as manifestations of intrapsychic problems, but as behaviors that people have learned to copy from the environment through reinforcements, or through models offered by society. Such stand though implying that the human behavior can be manipulated through the, control of environmental stimulus, doesn't exclude the phenomenological vision of man. These two approachings, apparently antagonic, have been presented here as a possible dynamistic element of the Communitarian Psychology. At the same time that we try to demenstrate that the human behavior is somehow controlled, it is also put in evidence the freedom of man to make his choices, being also able to make an effort to avoid aversive reinforcements, and contribute to a less repressive society. The objective of this study was to show a historical, theoretical and ideological site of the Communitarian Psychology and open up new perspectives in terms of its praxis and besides all its goals. That's the reason for the investigation about the changes intended by the Communitarian Psychlogy and for the warning that they take a transideological meaning, aiming the welfare of the community above all.

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