Teoria e prática na proteção aos acionistas minoritários: um olhar sobre o direito de retirada nas reorganizações societárias
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This paper analyzes the evolution of the protection to the minority stockholders of the stock market, through their right to withdrawal when the society is reorganized. Thus, a triple study was done: In the first place, it analyzes the evolution of legal protection for the minority stockholders with relation to possible abuses that can be committed by the majority stockholders of public traded corporations when there is a Public Offering for Stocks Acquisition (POSAs). In the second place, it studies opinions about this legal protection of portfolio managers and lawyers who deal with corporate law. Finally, it verified the POSAs which occurred in recent periods, comparing the values used by the majority stockholders to reimburse the stocks from minority shareholders in those POSAs. Comparing the results of these three above studies, we conclude that: A) The current legislation does not protect adequately the minority stockholders; B) There is a great dispersion of opinions among the two categories of professionals, concerning their approval or not of important details of the current legislation, and also of the old legislation; C) A great dispersion also exists about the suggestions concerning what should be modified in the legislation to improve it; D) The Brazilian Securities Commission (Comissão de Valores Mobiliários ¿ CVM) did not prevent the distortions observed in the POSAs studied; E) The legislation is not always well known by these professionals, and this suggests that the knowledge of small investors must be precarious. This insecurity and ignorance of the legal protection become obstacles for nonspecialized persons to invest in stocks, resulting in an important limitation for the development and popularization of the Brazilian stock market.