O efeito de disposição: um estudo empírico no Brasil

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Pacheco, Julia Alice Sophia von Maltzan
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We study the behavior of a large number of investors, including individuals, corporations and institutions, in the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA) by analyzing a history of transactions from 2001 to 2004. Our objective is to investigate whether the disposition effect, i.e. the tendency to sell winners quicker than losers, demonstrated in various empirical papers for a number of stock markets, also holds for investors in the BOVESPA. Using various different cross-sectional measures of the disposition effect, we find that investors tend to sell winners quicker than losers measured for the period as a whole as well as in each year. However, when we test for the disposition effect by investor type, we find different results. While individual investors continue to show the disposition effect, we obtain ambiguous results for the investment behavior of corporations and institutions. The segmentation of the investors´ base by type of investor brings important insights on the presence of the disposition effect. Using a time-series measure of the disposition effect, we find that in every year, all types of investors tend to sell winners quicker than losers, with the exception of the value-based measure for the institutional investor in the year 2004. In order to validate the previous results we analyze the impact that other factors may have on the disposition effect, such as: tax-motivated selling, rebalancing, dividends and the influence of significant price drops in three liquid stocks. We demonstrate that none of these factors changed the tendency to realize winners quicker than losers.

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