Multi-generational SIR modeling: Determination of parameters, epidemiological forecasting and age-dependent vaccination policies

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We use an age-dependent SIR system of equations to model the evolution of the COVID-19. Parameters that measure the amount of interaction in different locations (home, work, school, other) are approximated from in-sample data using a random optimization scheme, and indicate changes in social distancing along the course of the pandemic. That allows the estimation of the time evolution of classical and age-dependent reproduction numbers. With those parameters we predict the disease dynamics, and compare our results with out-of-sample data from the City of Rio de Janeiro. Finally, we provide a numerical investigation regarding age-based vaccination policies, shedding some light on whether is preferable to vaccinate those at most risk (the elderly) or those who spread the disease the most (the youngest). There is no clear upshot, as the results depend on the age of those immunized, contagious parameters, vaccination schedules and efficiency.

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