A democratização do acesso ao ensino superior: um estudo sobre o Programa Universidade Para Todos (PROUNI) e sobre o sistema de reservas de cotas de vagas étnico-raciais
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Brazil is an extremely unequal country and this inequality has been a permanent characteristic of its economic and social structure. Some scholars generally consider that the economic growth has generated extreme conditions of space and social inequalities, which reveal themselves within Brazil¿s regions, states, rural and urban areas, central and peripheral areas and among its ethnic groups. Such conditions negatively affect the quality of life of the population and will be reflected in the reduction of life expectancy, in the increase of the indexes of infant mortality and illiteracy, amongst other aspects. Education is considered one of the ways to promote the development of a country, however, access to education, specially higher education in Brazil, since it was first implemented, had been limited to a small group of privileged people, the elite of society. Thus, it becomes necessary to extend the access of students to higher education and consequently to generate individuals capable of changing the reality of the place where they live in and as a result, to develop the country. The purpose of this research is to analyze two programs destined to the amplify the access to higher education in Brazil, namely, the University for All Program (ProUni) and the System of Quotas, with the objective to verify at which level their drawings and strategies will allow the democratization of the access to higher education and the reduction of regional inequalities. In order to achieve its objective, the study is initiated with the issue of development and inequalities in Brazil, then it goes through the history of higher education in Brazil and it is finished with the analysis of ProUni and the System of Quotas.