Produtividade do trabalho e custo unitário do trabalho na indústria de transformação do Brasil no período 1996 a 2014
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The competitiveness of a country, region or industry can be represented through productivity and the Labor Unit Cost (LUC). With productivity being the basis for assessing the nation potential growth, it is pertinent to study the current situation and understand the causes of this situation to allow the development of actions improving these indicators. This thesis brings the evolution of labor productivity and the LUC in the manufacturing industry for the years 1996 to 2014. Using data from the Annual Industrial Survey, the material shows a 19% labor productivity decrease on the manufacturing industry. Thus, 15 of the 20 industry sectors showed a drop in productivity and only 5 sectors showed productivity gains during this period. The thesis also calculates the LUC for the same period and its positive variation of 48% in local currency and 6.63% based on the basket of currencies (effective exchange rate - EER) of the Central Bank. The material concludes that economic weight changes did not affect LUC increase between 1996 and 2014. LUC increase was explained by exchange rate appreciation and increase of wages.