Modelos de Saneamento: execução da política e processo de privatização
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The main objective of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the current decentralization model for the implementation of sanitation policies encouraged by the federal government since the mid-1990s and implemented gradually in the municipalities, considering the limitations of replication for all, since it does not consider that the Municipalities in the majority do not have scale for the efficient provision of the service and also do not possess technical capacity and bureaucratic structure. We tried to analyze in the literature of Brazil and internationally the models that are or have already been implanted looking for the one that is the most indicated to execute the policy of sanitation, not only guaranteeing the results, but maximizing its objectives. According to the analysis undertaken, a change from the proposed model was identified, proceeding from a centralized model with intervention of the federal government in the states and municipalities for a decentralization model with greater municipal autonomy. This change occurred due to the financial depletion of the old model as well as a new federative interpretation that sought to empower the municipalities, guaranteeing greater administrative and financial autonomy. It is understood that, this change led to the adoption of a fragile model, by inducing decentralization, disregarding the aspects of scale gains that are necessary for the provision of the service in most of the municipalities. The centralized model, applied by state sanitation companies, remains the one that serves the largest number of municipalities, however, it is currently perceived a predominance of the application of the decentralized model in municipalities with a population with greater economic capacity, concentrating the smaller municipalities Economic capacity in regional state enterprises. The expansion of this model will aggravate this imbalance, unbalancing the uniform provision of the service, to the detriment of those who have less financial capacity, in opposition to the regulatory framework of sanitation, whose main objective is to universalize the service. It is suggested that the federal government induces the reorganization of the model into a centralized cooperative or associated form of delivery, with a dimension aimed at ensuring the universalization of service delivery with the maximization of scale gains inherent to the sector. In view of the regional inequalities present in Brazil, it is believed that there should not be only one single model to be widely replicated. This new model must be shaped for each region and should be widely discussed with society and its legislative houses. Parallel to this new dimension of the model, it is understood as fundamental the development of a form of sustainable financing for the expansion works of the sanitation networks, considering the large financial volume necessary for the universalization.