Modelos de negócio na economia compartilhada: uma investigação multi-caso
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The sharing economy was originated in the United States in the 1990s, driven by technological advancements that led to cost reductions in on-line peer-to-peer transactions (SHIRKY, 2008), thus making it feasible to create new business models based on the exchange and sharing of goods and services among unknown people (SCHOR, 2015), and boost the rise of the sharing economy business models (GANSKY, 2010). The sharing economy consists of business practices that allow access to goods and services, without the need of purchasing a product or exchanging money (BOTSMAN; ROGERS, 2011). Currently, the sharing economy is growing in Brazil through the expansion of new business models that aim at sharing, exchanging and reselling goods and services. In order to expand the knowledge about the sharing economy, this research conducted a multiple case study of four companies that represent this economy. This study attempted to investigate the companies’ business models, emphasizing a holistic approach to explain how each organization conducts its business (ZOTT; AMIT; MASSA, 2011). As a result, the case study confirms that the sharing economy consists of several types of business models (SCHOR, 2014); among the four cases studied, three different types of business models were identified. Besides, this study showed that sharing economy companies tend to develop synergies with traditional economy companies to ensure their business model sustainability. Among the four companies studied, three are developing business-to-business transactions with traditional economy partners. Thus, the study confirms the emergence of a hybrid economy formed by the capitalist market and sharing economy initiatives (RIFKIN, 2014). However, the study also showed that approaching traditional businesses does not mean abandoning the essence of sharing and environmental sustainability present in the value proposals of the sharing economy.