Os impactos dos investimentos estrangeiros diretos na evolução da balança comercial brasileira no período pós-real

Kasznar, Istvan Karoly
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The purpose of the present study is to discuss the eventual relationship between foreign direct investment in Brazil and trade balance, considering the period after the beginning of 'Plano Real' on 1994, which presented a new currency regime and a new profile of Brazilian macroeconomy. It is important to state that there is a controversial debate around the question, since those investments are seen as positive to receiving countries by some authors and negative by other ones. Those who are favorable, argue that the recent attitude assumed by a lot of companies towards internalization is changing the modus operandi in some markets, providing a much more competitive framework. It is also remarkable - they also mention - the potential advantages brought by these new strategies. On the other hand, some authors defend that it increases the exposure of the country that receives such resources, since the subsidiaries of those companies operate under marketing strategies of profit maximization, considered the competitive environment they face. We will go over these opinions troughout the study, trying also to capture the reasons that usually motivate foreign companies to look for new markets and branches and also the effects on receiving country's Balance of Payments. Besides that point, the approach presented will try to answer if the increase of foreign capital stock in Brazil helps to explain some positive response from the country's trade balance, and more, on Balance of Payments. It is also important to mention that the considered period is extremely representative, mainly when considered the huge amounts involved and the increasing liberalization verified in brazilian's external policies since 1990. There is special concern, troughout the study, to define the pattern of such investments, and more, the impacts that those resources brought to public budget. The present study will focus on official data, published by Central Bank of Brazil, mainly those ones regarding Census of Foreign Capitals, as well as the referable to the evolution of Balance of Payments. Finally, based on statistical procedures, it will be provided multiple regressions on available data that will help the reader to capture the effects of some selected variables, which will bring a much more oriented analysis to the discussion.

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