Análise de projetos de investimentos: uma abordagem teórico-prática
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The objective of this work is to search a real case of capital budgeting, relating the practical technical aspects of the elaboration of project, with theoretical referential and following secondary objectives: (i) to analyze the relations established between the bibliographical material and the found practical technical problems of capital budgeting in the enterprise; (ii) to search and to describe the necessary pacing to the economic and financial elaboration of an project, from the prospecting of the demand, the projection of revenues and expenditures and the evaluation of the necessary investments to its development; (iii) to relate and to exemplify the influences of the restrictions presented for the methods of capital budgeting, correlating the practical theoretical referential with the enterprise; (iv) to analyze the yield of the investment project, (v) to verify the influence of the financing, on the yield of the project; and, finally, (vi) to demonstrate the choice process among some alternatives of supply, when used as tools of aid to the purchase decision, the methods of the Internal Tax of Return and the Net Present Value. To the end of the study one concluded that the methods of the Internal Tax of Return and the Net Present Value are powerful tools in the yield evaluation and viability of investments projects. However, to only understand the methods through what they teach in books is not enough for the daily practical of capital budgeting. Literature starts from two basic points: (i) the investments analyst dominates all the countable revenues, expenditures, and investments concepts.(ii) the numerical examples are simple and easy to understand, to infer its practical applications is a contouring question to be raised and passed by the analyst. This study intends to show the conjunction of the bibliography with the practical one, therefore, from the instant that demonstrates the countable concept of the prescription, it also explains as it was constituted from the calculation of the demand, until its inclusion in the project. Thus, searching concepts of revenues, expenditures, depreciation and capital assets, disclosing its constitution and, over all, the application inside of the project, it all takes the analyst to the final part of the process, that consists in the determination of the numerical calculations, allowing to dedicate more time to the difficult task to interpret the data. Finally, understood the analysis of the economic viability of the project, the study guides the purchase of the equipment under the economic-financial point of view.