Conselhos gestores em unidades de conservação: caracterização da efetividade na perspectiva dos stakeholders
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The participation of social stakeholders in governance and its functions in public policies is a permanent theme in public management discussions (SANTANA, 2011; TENÓRIO, 2002; NASCIMENTO, 1967). It has been advocated by development and protection agencies and environmental institutions as essential for the management of natural territories (VAN DE KERKHOF, 2006; IUCN, 2011; HOCKINGS ET AL, 2006; BRASIL, 2013; ERVIN, 2003a; BRASIL, 2002; 2014). For environmental policy in force in Brazil, the management councils of public policies - traditional consultation spaces and social control of public policies - are legally institutionalized as forums for ensuring participation of stakeholders in the management of so-called protected areas or 'unidades de conservação' (BRASIL, 2000; 2002). However, institutional support does not translate itself in social participation in the management of these territories, and there’s a low level of management councils in activity. This work faced the challenge of identifying the effectiveness of management councils in natural protected area, from the perspective of the actors that compose these spaces in activity and that were identified as effective management councils. It was structured a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews to achieve that objective. From those actors perspective (stakeholders), it was possible to understand determinants and factors such as instruments and dynamics that contribute to effective actions. It was concluded that the legal and institutional framework that supports the existence of the councils in protected areas is significant to promote the involvement of civil society, non-profit organizations and public authorities in managing natural areas. However it does not guarantee the existence of management councils or consultation groups active in protected area management. From the perspective of stakeholders, the effectiveness encompasses both actions that generate results for the preservation and sustainable management of natural resources and the very ability to exist as a legitimate forum for debate and local social participation.