Crimes financeiros e política criminal: estudo de acórdãos do TRF da 3ª Região sobre os crimes de gestão fraudulenta e gestão temerária no período de 2001 a 2010
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This work aims to produce knowledge about how the Brazilian Federal Court of the 3rd Region has been deciding about two of the main crimes related to the management of the financial institutions: fraudulent management and reckless management. Both crimes have been criticized by the doctrine, because of their failures of definition, since the edition of the federal law n. 7.492, in 1986. Furthermore, their legislative prevision has characteristics that comes close to the paradigm of the criminal law of risk, that is: crimes of abstract danger, that protect collective juridical good, committed by administrators who have the duty of trustworthiness in the management of the institutions, which are submitted to the inherent risks of the financial system. The adoption of this paradigm is contentious in the criminal law doctrine, because implies the flexibilization of the basic rights in a Rule of Law State under the perspective of the traditional criminal law paradigm. Thus, it is adopted the methodology of content analysis of judicial opinions to answer two problems of research: (1) which criteria are adopted by the Court for the characterization of the crimes? (2) Do the judicial opinions come close to one of the paradigms of criminal law? The hypotheses to be tested are: (1) that the Court considers mainly the practice of the conduct without analyzing its harmful potentiality under an ex ante perspective; and, (2) that this discourse of imputation of responsibility comes close to the paradigm of the criminal law of risk, considering, in context, other elements in the judicial opinions. In the first part, there is the methodological introduction; in the second, the theoretical framework; in the third and fourth, the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative results with their discussion; in the end, there is the conclusion, with a proposal of a new problem to be investigated.