Ecoparques empresariais e vantagem competitiva: um estudo sobre o polo verde tecnológico do Rio de Janeiro
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Ecobusiness Parks are new collective business arrangements for a greater sustainability at local level. Accordingly and guided by discussions on Competitive Social and Environmental Strategies, the present study aimed to analyze which factors of competitive advantage are associated with these ventures. After developing an exploratory study it was selected, by its typical features and ease of access, the Technological Green Pole of Rio de Janeiro as the context for conducting a case study. Specifically, the units of analysis were two companies that will have research centers in the pole, General Electric and L'Oréal. Additionally, given the multidisciplinary criteria of case studies and in the case of physically located arrangements, it was adopted the Location Theory as alternative explanatory theory. Based on these two theoretical domains it was defined a conceptual framework used, subsequently, in a qualitative analysis. This analysis, that relied on data triangulation, revealed that the main perceived advantage by companies were the proximity to consumer markets, followed by government support, the business environment and the availability of intellectual capital. The social and environmental issues, in turn, were taken as a matter of responsibility. Competitiveness were then treated as a secondary issue. However, potential gains were recognized from this strategy, such as reputation, innovation, increased productivity and reduced risk.