Income composition, endogenous fertility and schooling investments in children
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This paper studies how the eomposition of ineome between mothers and fathers affeets fertility and sehooling investments in ehildren, using data from the 1976 and 1996 PNAD, a Brazilian household survey. Ineome composition affeets the time eost of fertility because mothers and fathers alloeate different amounts of time to child-rearing. These effects are in turn transmitted to investments in ehildren through a tradeoffbetween quantity and quality of ehildren. The main contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it derives new implications about the relationship between household ineome composition and schooling investments in ehildren. Seeond, this paper devises and implements an empirieal approaeh to assess these implieations, using two eross-seetions of fertility and schooling data from Brazil. The main empirical findings of the paper ean be summarized as follows. First, the empirical analysis shows that a larger negative effect of the mother's labor in come on fertility in 1996 is associated with a larger positive effect on the adult child's schooling, refleeting the interaction between quantity and quality of children. Second, the larger negative effect of the mother's labor income on fertility in 1996 is associated with a reduction in the effect of other determinants of number of children. This suggests that an increase in the relative importanee of time costs of fertility may be an important determinant of variations in fertility over time in Brazil and other developing countries .