Pricing the cost of an election: the impact of the 2014 elections on stock markets
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What is the effect of elections on real assets? Can we measure the effect on price only observing one outcome? This dissertation attempts to estimate these effects using a methodology based in stock options. The model developed adapts the benchmark Black-Scholes model to incorporate two new parameters: a perfectly anticipated jump in price (∆) and a series of daily probabilities (Θ) reflecting beliefs about outcomes of the election. We apply this method to 2014 Brazilian Presidential Elections and Petrobras - an important oil company in Brazil - using market data from the second election round. The results found show 65-77% difference in company valuation, depending on election outcome. This is equivalent to approximately 2.5% of Brazil’s GDP in 2014.