A masculinização da mulher líder no Brasil: quatro estudos sobre estereótipos de gênero e protótipos de liderança
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The entry of women into the labor market has generated a series of changes in organizations, however, the careers of women executives still differ in relation to the career of his fellow men. This disparity may result from an inconsistency between the social role of women and the role expected of a leader. However, this phenomenon appears is undergoing change, given the empowerment of women in both the corporate and political landscape. In this sense, the problem arises from this research: what is the actual behavior of women to assume leadership roles? The theoretical framework surrounding this research involves the theory of social role (Eagly, 1987), which postulates that each individual has a role in normal society, which includes the role of leader, formed through prototypes or how it should behave , as well as gender roles, which included the socially accepted behavior for men and women. In this direction, to make the comparison of expected social roles of both sexes and the roles required to lead is to the theory of congruence of roles (Eagly and Karau, 2002). Given this theoretical framework, to meet the objective of this research are conducted four studies using qualitative methodologies, experimental and quantitative. In the first study, we tested the relationship between leader and sex of the dimensions of the prototype agents and community leadership through content analysis of descriptions of women and men leaders. In the second study, is tested through an experiment, the congruence of the evaluation of male and female leaders with the agents and communal behavior. In the third study examines four leadership profiles and how these are linked to each other from data collected through structured questionnaires. It analyzes the general characteristics of the leader and effective leader with the characteristics of the leading male and female leader. These tests are also carried out considering the sexual profile of the respondent (BEM, 1974). Finally, the fourth study are analyzed in-depth interviews to identify how they occur and what causes these events mentioned above. The results showed that by taking a leadership role, women tend to assume characteristics of the prototype agents of leadership (such as strength, masculinity and tyranny), or tends to masculinize to be accepted by others. The results also show few differences between men and women leaders, which supports the first conclusion. On the other hand, the communal characteristics of the leader (and sensitivity) have emerged as the most critical for the acceptance of the leader by subordinates, but not for its effectiveness. Thus, this paper seeks to contribute to better understand the phenomenon of female leadership, shedding light on possible inconsistencies between management and the social roles of women in contemporary Brazilian society.