As escolhas das carreiras minimizam o impacto da política de cotas? O caso do estado do Rio de Janeiro
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This research aims to verify if the quota policy, included in the Brazilian federal legislation by means of Law No. 12.771 of 2012, by making it mandatory to reserve places in higher education in a combination of color / race, income and rise in the public high school, has walked to reach their goal to minimize the racial and social Brazilian debts, caused, among others, by the slavery that has been perpetuated for decades in the country. This research focused on the choice of the careers of shareholders and not quota students in general, as well as by sex and turn. Seek to highlight the hypothesis that the target audience of the quota policy to choose less prestigious careers or with lower financial return, ends to minimize the impact thereof and suggests that complementary policy would be needed. To sort and group the careers, the study used the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE listing careers by the average remuneration received. After context of racial and social inequality, education as a promoter of economic and social development, American and Brazilian experiences with affirmative action, exposure of legislation which provides for the subject and previous studies, and the importance of evaluation of public policies, the data of the 2013 Censo do Ensino Superior of the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Anísio Teixeira – Inep are analyzed, when it comes to career choice of the shareholders and not shareholders, as well as by sex and turn. The scope of the research was restricted to universities, centers and public institutions located in the state of Rio de Janeiro that, to varying degrees and time have already adopted the policy of quotas in order to verify the hypothesis. At the end of the survey shows that the regression model that includes the IES and the policy duration time was statistically significant indicating the strong influence of IES and time on the shareholder ratio that, contrary to what was thought, the shareholders choose careers better paid or more prestigious regardless of the selected shift, but that females and night shift students, in general, shareholders and not shareholders, opt for careers least paid indicating the need for complementary policy that: fosters the participation of women in these careers, evaluate the careers and vacancies offered in the night shift and crown distortions that broaden the range of possibilities for students of higher education.