Átomos e democracia no Brasil: a formulação de políticas e os controles democráticos para o ciclo do combustível nuclear no período pós-1988
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This work analyzes the main developments related to the nuclear fuel cycle in contemporary Brazil, paying special attention to the mechanisms of democratic control applied to nuclear energy policy. Based on literature review and empirical research, the thesis presents case studies about the implementation of different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle: 1) uranium mining and processing in Caetité, BA; 2) uranium enrichment in Resende, RJ; 3) construction of Angra 2 nuclear power plant in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The case studies allow in-depth analysis of Brazil’s technopolitical trajectory and the challenges that affect nuclear energy policymaking in a democratic context. The comparison between the cases reveals aspects that characterize Brazil's nuclear policy in the New Republic period, such as the president’s decisive part in decision making, the dependent role of the legislature, the diverse web of accountability institutions, the difficulty of setting limits to political interference in the nuclear institutions, the obstacles affecting the communication between the nuclear operators and the neighboring communities, the contours of nuclearity in each stage of the fuel cycle, among others. By adopting an original perspective for the study of Brazil’s nuclear trajectory, this research aims to provide a better understanding of the conciliation between the imperatives of democracy and the requirements of technological competence in the nuclear field, commonly characterized by its exceptionalism.