Articulação horizontal no federalismo brasileiro: os conselhos de secretários estaduais
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Research on Brazilian federalism has not yet significantly incorporated the implications of interstate relations into public policy. Furthermore, few researches have addressed the problem of intergovernamental coordination, either in a general plan or in specific governmental areas. The present Thesis intends to analyze the evolution of the federative coordination process, from the re-democratization to the present days, by examining four cases of National State Setorial Councils. The main hypothesis of this work is that two factors have established this process: First, is the general scenario of the Federation, marked by two critical junctures in the period – the re-democratization and the Plano Real. Second, and more important, is related to the origin, construction and the shape of the national policy for each sector. Therefore, the (1) level of institutionalization of intergovernmental articulation; (2) consensus among the actors; and (3) effectiveness of intergovernmental coordination instruments would lead to different results in the following areas: Tributary System, Health, Education and Public Administration. To understand this federative dynamic, this study has focused on the reasons of the expansion of the National Council of State Secretaries, choosing four cases that represents the most important sectors in the public area: the National Council of Tributary System, (CONFAZ); the National Council of State Health Secretaries; the National Council of State Education Secretaries (CONSED) and the National Council of State Administration Secretaries (CONSAD). The main concern of these entities is to integrate the States and the Federal District to discuss common issues, define strategies for coordinated actions and to influence the Federal policies. Considering the emergence of those councils in a conflicting environment of interstate relationship and the lack of coordination between them and the Federal Government, the objective of this research is to rescue the genesis and evolution of these councils aiming to answer the following main question: which factors have driven to this horizontal articulation and what are the results in terms of coordination among the constituent units? In a general view, we conclude that National Policies influence the interstate cooperation, as well as the whole process of Federal coordination.